Showing posts with label Pakistan Missile System. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Pakistan Missile System. Show all posts

Tuesday, June 24, 2014

Anza Anti Aircraft Missile Of Pak Army

Anza is a series of shoulder-fired, man-portable surface-to-air missiles produced by Pakistan. Guided by an infra-red homing seeker, Anza is used for low level air defense.
Anza is produced by Kahuta Research Laboratories (KRL), being one of the facility's main conventional weapons projects. Development was originally undertaken to eliminate dependence on importing expensive foreign systems. Various versions of the Anza are currently in service with the Pakistan Army, with the Mk-III version being the most recent. The Anza is also offered for export, Malaysia being its only known export customer after receiving 100 Anza Mk-I in 2002 and, later, a further 500 Anza Mk-II systems.
Development And Design Of Anza Missile :-
Some sources state that the Anza Mk-II was co-developed in a joint project by Pakistan and China. Pervez Musharraf has stated Pakistan cooperated with North Korea in the production of conventional weapons when it developed the Anza. The Anza Mk-I entered service with the Pakistan Army in January 1990, followed by the Anza Mk-II in September 1994. Serial production of Anza Mk-III for the Pakistan Army was announced in 2006.
In recent years, Pakistan has advertised the Anza series for export, displaying it at the International Defense Exhibition (IDEX) 2007 event in the United Arab Emirates and at the IDEAS 2008 defense exhibition in Pakistan.
Training Aids And Simulator :-
The Mk-II is known to have the ATS-II Training Simulator included, which consists of a set of four Mk-II training missiles, four firing units, simulated ground batteries, cable interconnectors, PC-based control, monitoring and scoring unit with a target simulator made up of an infrared electric bulb moving along an overhead wire.
The High Speed Aerial Target Drone, or HISAT-DK, is a high speed, low maintenance target drone that can be used in training operators to use the Anza. It is manned by a four-man crew using Optical Tracking Pod devices. The drones can be used for MANPAD training, though they are also used for other purposes, such as artillery fire support training.
Variants Of Anza Missiles :-
Anza Mk-I - The first MANPADS produced by Pakistan for use by the Pakistan Army. Development is believed to have been assisted by China and the design is similar to the HN-5B MANPADS. A British source the Anza is a copy of the SA-7 Grail. Approximately 1000 Anza Mk-I were produced between 1989-1998.
Anza Mk-II - A third generation MANPADS, believed to be based on the Chinese QW-1 MANPADS Uses a dual-band, cross-scan infra-red homing seeker to counter decoy flares. Also believed to use American missile technology. Approximately 1650 Anza Mk-II were produced between 1994-2012.
Anza Mk-III - Believed to be based on the Chinese QW-2 MANPADS, modifications made to meet Pakistan Army requirements include increased range upto 5 kms, improved sensors and a new firing unit similar to the Russian 9K38 Igla MANPADS. All-aspect attack capability and improved ECCM capability. It also has a vehicle-mounted launcher variant.
Operational History Of Anza Missile System :-
On 27 May 1999, the Anza Mk-II was used to attack Indian aircraft during the Kargil conflict with India. A MiG-27 of the Indian Air Force was shot down by Pakistan Army Air Defense forces. The MiG-27 was searching for a MiG-21 pilot who ejected when its aircraft experienced an engine flameout.
In December 2002, it was reported that Indian soldiers of the 24 Rashtriya Rifles found an Anza Mk-I in a militant hideout near the Line of Control in Kupwara, Kashmir. An Anza system had previously been found at a militant hideout by Indian Army soldiers in 2001. Pakistan denied supplying Anza systems to the militants. Reports have been circulated that an Anza MANPADS was fired at an Indian Air Force Antonov An-32 in 2002 over the Line of Control; the plane was able to land safely.
In 2004, Saudi Assistant Minister for Defense Prince Khaled ibn Sultan of Saudi Arabia and Defense Minister Rao Sikandar Iqbal of Pakistan had been in talks for joint production of the Anza.
In 2008, the Pakistan Army conducted exercises with the Anza Mk-II in a semi-desert area near Muzaffargarh in response to covert attacks on targets in north-west Pakistan by American unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), also known as drones. In November 2008, the chief of the Pakistan Air Force told reporters that his forces are fully capable of shooting down the American drones but it was the responsibility of the government to decide whether the drone attacks were stopped through diplomacy or military engagement. In the 2010 Azm-e-Nau 3 exercises, the air defense of Pakistan Army exhibited accurate targeting of enemy's aircraft while in its attacking position, with a pinpoint precision through shoulder operated system of Anza Missiles.
_::: Comparison Of Capabilities Of Anza 1, Anza 2 and Anza 3 :::_

Anza MK-1 Anza MK-2 Anza MK-3
Length(Missile and Booster) 1.44 Meters 1.447 Meters 1.59 Meters
Weight(Launcher and Missile) 15 Kilograms 16.5 Kilograms 18 Kilograms
Missile Weight 9.8 Kilograms 10.68 Kilograms 11.32 Kilograms
Propulsion Solid Fuel Rocket Motor
Guidance System Uncooled PBS Passive Infra-Red Homing Seeker Cooled PBS Passive Infra-Red Homing Seeker Dual Band Infra-Red Homing Seeker
Warhead HE Fragmentation(Containing 0.37 Kilograms HE)With Contact and Graze Fusing HE Fragmentation(Containing 0.55 Kilograms HE)With Contact and Graze Fusing HE Fragmentation(Containing 1.42 Kilograms HE)With Contact and Graze Fusing
Average Cruise Speed 500 Meters Per Second 600 Meters Per Second Greater Than 600 Meters Per Second
Maximum Maneuvering 6g 16g
Self Destruction Time 14 To 17 Seconds 14 To 18 Seconds
Slant Range 1200 To 4200 Meters 500 To 5000 Meters 6000 Meters
Altitude 50 Meters To 2300 Meters 30 Meters To 4000 Meters 10 Meters To 3500 Meters
Weapon Reaction Time 5 Seconds 3.5 Seconds 3.5 Seconds
Ready From The March 10 Seconds 10 Seconds 10 Seconds
Battery Life 40 Seconds 50 Seconds 50 Seconds

Monday, June 16, 2014

H-4 SOW Of Pakistan Air Force

The H-4 SOW (Stand-Off Weapon) is a precision-guided glide bomb manufactured by Pakistan and deployed by the Pakistan Air Force, capable of striking targets at stand-off range. It has a terminal guidance system based on an infrared imaging seeker, which identifies the target during the final stage of flight. Designed to hit targets out to 120 km, the bomb may have the capability to evade radar.
History Of This Missile Development :-
According to Pakistani press reports, the H-4 glide bomb was created by Pakistan's National Engineering and Scientific Commission (NESCOM), working in collaboration with the Pakistan Missile Organization and Air Weapons Complex in Pakistan, by modifying the design of the South African Denel T-Darter beyond visual range (BVR) air-to-air missile. A lighter version of the H-4 has also been produced, the H-2 SOW, which has a stated range of 60 km.

JF-17 Thunder Missile
JF-17 Thunder Missile

Three successful tests were conducted, the last one in 2003, which led to field deployment on the Dassault Mirage III and Mirage V strike fighters of the Pakistan Air Force. It has also been stated that the H-4 will be integrated with the PAF's new multi-role combat aircraft, the JF-17, which is replacing the ageing fleet of Mirage III and Mirage V aircraft. All Pakistani JF-17 fighters, from the initial JF-17 Block 1 model to the final Block 3 version, will be capable of launching the H-4.

The H-4's stated range of 120 km and its glide bomb design has led to speculation that it may be a copy or a Pakistani variant of the Denel Raptor II glide bomb, which is also guided by an infrared imaging seeker and has a range of 120 km. There has been much confusion regarding the actual identity of the H-4. Many Indian sources state that the weapon is actually a beyond visual range air-to-air missile. However, Pakistani sources state that the H-4 is a "beyond visual range bomb".

Sunday, June 15, 2014

Hatf IX Missile Of Pakistani Armed Forces

The Hatf IX ("Vengeance IX") or Nasr  is a solid fuelled tactical ballistic missile system developed by Pakistan's National Development Complex (NDC). It is referred to by Pakistan's Inter Services Public Relations organization as a "Multi Tube Ballistic Missile" because the launch vehicle carries multiple missiles. Its existence was revealed after a test in 2011 and it appears to have entered service after further testing in 2013.
Background :-
Hatf IX Of Pakistan Army Approaching Target
Hatf IX Of Pakistan Army Approaching Target

According to defense analysts and missile technology experts the system appears to have been developed as a "low-yield battlefield deterrent" targeted at "mechanized forces like armed brigades and divisions". Therefore it is believed by analysts that the system is deployed to deter and respond to India's "Cold Start" doctrine.  Pakistan's Inter-Services Public Relations agency says the Hatf IX was developed to "add deterrence value... at shorter ranges... with high accuracy, shoot and scoot attributes" for "quick response."

Design :-
The Hatf IX Nasr is a ballistic missile which carries a sub-kiloton nuclear warhead out to a range of 60 km (37.3 mi). It is believed to be derived from the WS-2 Weishi Rockets system developed by China's Sichuan Aerospace Corporation. Four missiles are carried on the s
ame Chinese-origin 8x8 transporter erector launcher (TEL) as the Pakistan Army's A-100E 300mm Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS), a Chinese version of the BM-30 Smerch.
Capabilities :-
The missile can carry nuclear warheads of appropriate yield, with high accuracy. It also has an in flight maneuver capability and is specially designed to defeat all known anti-tactical missile defense systems. It also has the ability to fire at a target and immediately relocate to another position to avoid enemy counter-fire. This was confirmed by by Mansoor Ahmed, of Quaid-e-Azam University’s Department of Defence and Strategic Studies. "Its in-flight maneuverability is being improved to defeat potential Indian missile defenses against artillery rockets and short-range ballistic missiles, such as the Israeli Iron Dome system.” He further went on to say that the system is “fully integrated into the centralized command-and-control structure through round the clock situational awareness in a digitized network centric environment to the decision makers at National Command Center. Nasr is obviously India-specific and the salvo launch capability is a key ability in stopping Indian armored thrusts into Pakistani territory."
History :-
The missile's existence was first reported after a test-firing on 19 April 2011. A 4-missile salvo fired on the 5th October 2013 is believed to have marked the conclusion of the testing program and the system's likely entry into service.

Thursday, June 12, 2014

Hatf 8 Ra'ad Missile Of Pakistan Air Force

The Ra'ad is an air-launched cruise missile (ALCM) developed by Pakistan and operational with the Pakistan Air Force (PAF). Though initially launched from a PAF Dassault Mirage III ROSE combat aircraft during testing, the missile is planned to be integrated with and launched from other PAF platforms such as the JF-17 combat aircraft. The Ra'ad's current range is stated to be 350 km.
Hatf 8 Ra'ad Missile Of Pakistan Air Force
Hatf 8 Ra'ad Missile Of Pakistan Air Force
Ra'ad is designed to attack fixed enemy installations (such as radar posts, command nodes and stationary surface to air missile launchers) at stand-off range, keeping the launching aircraft away from enemy air Defense systems. The missile can also be armed with a 10-35 kt nuclear warhead. The accuracy of the missile is reported to be comparable to Pakistan's Babur cruise missile, which has "pinpoint accuracy" according to official sources.
Development And Design :-
After a successful test-launch in 2005 of the Babur (also known as Hatf VII), Pakistan's first cruise missile, it was stated by officials that the Babur would be modified to be launched from airborne platforms. But the Ra'ad, developed by Pakistan's Air Weapons Complex and NESCOM, appears to be an entirely new missile, as is evident by the new name and a new official designation of Hatf VIII.
The Ra'ad's airframe is designed with stealth capability, provided by the shape of the airframe and the materials used in its construction, to give the missile a low detection probability and allow it to penetrate enemy air Defense systems. Designed to carry conventional or nuclear warheads, the missile would most likely be used for precision air strikes on enemy command centres, radars, surface to air missile launchers, ballistic missile launchers and stationary warships.
Operational History Of Ra’ad Cruise Missile :-
Ra'ad was tested for the first time on 25 August 2007. An official press-release by the military at the time of the test declared that the missile gave Pakistan Air Force a "strategic standoff capability on land and at sea," indicating that Ra'ad may be launched at sea-based targets such as ships, as well as land-based targets.
On 8 May 2008, Ra'ad was tested for the second time, this time fired from a Dassault Mirage III ROSE fighter of the Pakistan Air Force (PAF). A third successful test of Ra'ad (ALCM) was carried out on 29 April 2011, this time again fired from a Dassault Mirage fighter of Pakistan Air force. Fourth test of Ra'ad (ALCM) was carried out on 30 May 2012.

Wednesday, June 11, 2014

Hatf III ( Ghaznavi) Ballsitic Missile Of Pakistan Army

Rawalpindi - April 22, 2014
Hatf III ( Ghaznavi) Ballsitic Missile Of Pakistan Army
Hatf III ( Ghaznavi) Ballsitic Missile Of Pakistan Army
Pakistan today conducted a successful training launch of Short Range Surface to Surface Ballistic Missile Hatf III (Ghaznavi), which can carry nuclear and conventional warheads to a range of 290 kilometers. The successful launch concluded the Field Training Exercise of Strategic Missile Group of Army Strategic Forces Command.
The Training Launch was witnessed by the Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee, General Rashad Mahmood, Director General Strategic Plans Division, Lieutenant General Zubair Mahmood Hayat, Commander Army Strategic Forces Command, Lieutenant General Obaid Ullah Khan, Chairman NESCOM, Mr Muhammad Irfan Burney and other senior military officials and scientists.
Addressing the troops in the exercise area,  Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee commended the troops on achieving technical and operational excellence in operating the state of the art weapon system. He expressed his satisfaction over the training goals achieved during the exercise and expected that the officers and men entrusted with the task of deterring aggression would continue to maintain professional excellence.
The Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee, General Rashad Mahmood also congratulated all the Scientists and Engineers for  the successful launch of Ghaznavi Missile, as another mile stone which has further strengthened the defence potential of Pakistan besides assuring peace in the region.
The successful test has also been warmly appreciated by the President and Prime Minister of Pakistan who congratulated the participating troops, scientists and engineers on their outstanding achievement.

Tuesday, June 10, 2014

Ghaznavi Missile System Of Pakistan

The Hatf-III named Ghaznavi Missile is a short range ballistic missile (SRBM) with an optimal range of 290 km, produced by Pakistan and named after the 11th century Muslim Turkic conqueror Mahmood of Ghazni. The missile has a length of 9.64m, diameter of 0.99 m, launch weight of 5256 kg and is powered by a single stage solid fuel rocket motor. It is believed to be based on a Chinese design, the M-11 (NATO reporting name: CSS-7)
Operational History Of Ghaznavi Missile System :-
Ghaznavi Missile System Of Pakistan
Ghaznavi Missile System Of Pakistan
The Ghaznavi was reported to have been test-launched in late September/early October 2003 and was reported to be ready for service in March 2004. Another test launch occurred in late November 2004, with two more on 9 December 2006 another on 13 February 2008 and 8 May 2010; the 2008 test was believed to have concluded a winter training exercise of Pakistan's Army Strategic Force Command (ASFC). In May 2012, one more successful test of the missile was conducted as part of a training exercise.
Naming Controversy Created By Afghan Government :-
In February 2006, the Government of Afghanistan delivered a complain to Pakistan over naming its lethal ballistic missiles after Afghan kings and rulers (i.e. Abdali, Ghaznavid and Ghauri), arguing that their names should be bracketed with academic, cultural and peace-promoting institutions, not with tools of destruction and killing. However, Pakistan declined to change the missiles' names stating that these Muslim rulers are considered heroes in Pakistan as well, and naming missiles after them is not controversial.

Monday, June 9, 2014

Baktar Shikan

The HJ-8 or Hongjian-8 is a second generation tube-launched, optically tracked, wire-guided anti-tank missile system which was originally deployed by the People's Liberation Army since the late 1980s. Pakistan produces this missile system under license as the Baktar-Shikan at Kahuta Research Laboratories. It is able to defeat explosive reactive armour (ERA).
Development Of Baktar Shkan :-
In 1970, Chinese armored corps first proposed to develop a successor to HJ-73 and this was later approved, designated as the AFT-8 or HJ-8. The missile was jointly developed by Research Institute 203 and 282nd Factory, but the program was interrupted by political turmoil. The key designers were Wang Xingzhi and Zhao Jiazheng, who developed the missile. Development was not completed until early 1980s, after the end of the Cultural Revolution. After receiving state certification the missile entered mass-production in 1984. HJ-8 is an optically tracked, wire guided ATGM. A series of upgraded variants have been developed since. HJ-8 and its variants are manufactured by NORINCO's Factory 282 (Jiangnan Machine Factory), Factory 5618 (Hunan South China Photoelectricity Instrument Plant) of China and Kahuta Research Laboratories of Pakistan.
Baktar Shikan Missile Of Pakistan At Display
The HJ-8 series can be considered the Chinese equivalent of the American BGM-71 TOW and Franco-German MILAN / Euromissile HOT anti-tank missiles. HJ-8 is a tube-launched, optically tracked and wire-guided missile system armed with a HEAT anti-tank warhead. The HJ-8 is a combination many experts believe of three Western antitank missile systems obtained from nations in the Middle East and Asia that were then examined and reverse engineered and modified: the tripod from the US BGM-71 TOW; the tracker-control unit from the French/German MILAN; and the missile from the UK Swingfire.
There are numerous improved models following the original HJ-8, designated HJ-8A to HJ-8H, each incorporating improved features over the previous model. HJ-8E entered service in mid-1990. The HJ-8E anti-tank missile weighs 24.5 kg, has a range of up to 4,000 m, and can also defeat explosive reactive armour (ERA). The latest variant is the HJ-8H.
Designed to be both dependable and accurate, HJ-8 is now the standard anti-tank armament of the WZ-9, Mi-17, and Gazelle (replacing the original Euromissile HOT first carried) helicopter gunships of the PLA.
Turret Launch Platform :-
A launching platform that can be installed on armoured fighting vehicles has been developed by Norinco for use as an HJ-8 launching platform, the SW-1 one-man turret. The all-steel welded SW-1 turret weighs 1,750 kg and can be installed on various tracked or wheeled vehicles. The turret is stated to be immune to 0.50 caliber armour-piercing rounds at close range (100 meters) and protection is further increased when add-on armour is installed. The turret can traverse 360 degrees and be elevated -40 to +60 degrees. The fire-control system, based on that of HJ-8H, is internally mounted.
The primary armament of SW-1 includes four HJ-8H ATGM, with two mounted in the rear location on each side of the turret. The secondary armament comprises a 30 mm main gun and a coaxial 0.30 caliber machine gun. A variety of ammo can be used and the maximum rate of fire of the main gun is around 6 rounds per second, and automatic fire can be selected at various rates. The 30-mm gun is claimed to be effective against ground targets up to 4 km away and aerial targets at 2 km, while the HJ-8H missile is effective against ground targets at ranges of 4 km away, and against low and slow aerial targets at the same range. A follow-on model that is remotely operated weighing 1.4 ton has completed its development and entered Chinese service, designed by the same designer, Wu Lixin. Like its predecessor, this unmanned model was also first tested by using HJ-73C ATGM. The unmanned version carries 160 rounds of 30 mm ammunition.

Sunday, June 8, 2014

Babur Hatf 7 Missile Of Pakistan

Babur (named after the first Mughal Emperor Zahir ud-Din Babur), also designated Hatf VII, is the first land attack cruise missile to be developed by Pakistan.
Launched from ground-based transporter erector launchers, warships and submarines, the Babur can be armed with a conventional or nuclear warhead and has a reported range of 700 km (430 mi). The missile is designed to avoid radar detection and penetrate enemy air defenses. Serial production of the Babur started in October 2005.
Origin :-
It has been speculated that Babur is based on the BGM-109 Tomahawk cruise missile, after six Tomahawks crash-landed on Pakistani territory in 2001 during US airstrikes on targets in Afghanistan, and its design seems to show this influence. The propulsion system appears to approximate that of BGM-109 Tomahawk according to videos of its launch. However, there is no confirmation of this and the Pakistani missile development organization NESCOM has rejected this theory.
Babur is believed to have been developed in response to reports that India was planning to acquire Patriot missiles from the US, in order to set up a ballistic missile defense system to counter Pakistan's arsenal of ballistic missiles.
Design :-
The Babur's airframe is made up of a tubular fuselage, with a pair of folded wings attached to the middle section and the empennage at the rear along with the propulsion system. Propelled by a jet engine (either turbofan or turbojet), the Babur has a maximum speed of approximately 550 mph. On launch, a booster rocket provides additional thrust to accelerate the missile away from the launch vehicle. After the launch the wings unfold, the booster rocket is jettisoned and the jet engine started.

Babur Hatf 7 Missile Of Pakistan
Babur Hatf 7 Missile Of Pakistan Ejecting From MLV Launch Vehicle
Guidance :-

The Babur's guidance system uses a combination of inertial navigation systems, terrain contour matching (TERCOM) and GPS satellite guidance. The guidance system reportedly gives the missile pinpoint accuracy. GPS access is not guaranteed under hostile conditions so the latest production models have also reportedly incorporated the Russian GLONASS. Future software and hardware updates could include the European Union's GALILEO and China's Beidou navigation system.
Features :-
The missile is stated to have a high degree of maneuverability, allowing it to "hug" the terrain, and "near-stealth" capabilities. Terrain hugging ability helps the missile avoid enemy radar detection by utilizing "terrain masking", giving Babur the capability to penetrate enemy air defence systems undetected and survive until reaching the target. The missile's design features can be compared with the American BGM-109 Tomahawk cruise missile.
More advanced versions of the Babur are under development. Later versions are planned to have a range of 1000 km and be capable of being launched from Pakistan Navy submarines such as the Agosta 90B Khalid class.
Operational History Of Babur Cruise Missile :-
On August 12, 2005, Pakistan publicly announced that it had successfully test fired a nuclear-capable cruise missile with a range of 500 km. The missile was launched from a land based transporter erector launcher (TEL). The unannounced launch on 11 August 2005 caught much of the international community by surprise due to the technically advanced nature of the missile, as well as the fact that Pakistan did not notify India of its test-firing as the existing notification agreement is limited to ballistic missile testing only.
On March 22, 2007, Pakistan test-fired an upgraded version of the Babur with an extended range of 700 km. Pakistan carried out two more tests of Babur on July 26, 2007 and December 11, 2007. On May 6, 2009, Pakistan conducted another test-firing but did not announce the event until 9 May 2009, citing political reasons.
On October 28, 2011. Pakistan successfully test fire its Babur Cruise missile and has a range of 700 kilometer. The ISPR said Babur was capable of carrying conventional and atomic warheads. A special feature of this launch was the validation of a new multi tube Missile Launch Vehicle (MLV) during the test. The three tube MLV enhances manifold the targeting and deployment options in the conventional and nuclear modes. With its shoot-and-scoot capability, the MLV provides a major force multiplier effect for target employment and survivability.
On June 6, 2012 Pakistan conducted a successful test-fire of the multi-tube, indigenously developed Cruise Missile Hatf-VII (Babur), which can carry both nuclear and conventional warheads with stealth capabilities. It was the third test-fire conducted by Pakistan in the recent past, of different capacity and load. “It can carry both nuclear and conventional warheads and has stealth capabilities,” said an official announcement of the ISPR. “It also incorporates the most modern cruise missile technology of Terrain Contour Matching (Tercom) and Digital Scene Matching and Area Co-relation (DSMAC), which enhances its precision and effectiveness manifolds.”

Friday, June 6, 2014

Shaheen 3 Missile System

The Shaheen 3 is a Pakistani intermediate-range ballistic missile speculated to be in development. It is a member of the solid-fueled Shaheen series missile family and is envisioned to replace the less advanced liquid-fueled Ghauri-III system whose development was canceled in May 2000 according to Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan, Pakistan's former top scientist. The Shaheen series systems are developed jointly by Pakistan's SUPARCO and the NESCOM and its subsidiary, NDC.

Shaheen 3 Missile System
Shaheen 2 Missile Of Pakistan Army

Thursday, June 5, 2014

Shaheen 2 Missile

The Shaheen 2 is a ballistic missile developed by NESCOM's National Defense Complex (NDC) of Pakistan. The Shaheen missile series is named after a falcon that lives in the mountains of Pakistan. The missile is considered to be Pakistan's equivalent to the US Pershing II.
Description :-
The Shaheen 2 is a, a longer ranged variant of the Shaheen 1 missile. It is currently the most advanced ballistic missile in service with the Pakistani Armed Forces. It uses a two-stage solid propellant rocket motor designed to carry conventional or nuclear payloads. It is transported and launched by a 6-axle transporter erector launcher (TEL). According to U.S. based analysts, a satellite image of a Pakistani missile production facility taken on 5 June 2005 shows fifteen 6-axle TELs being fitted out for the Shaheen 2 missile.

Shaheen 2 was successfully test fired for the first time on March 9, 2004. At that time, the National Engineering and Science Commission (NESCOM) chairman Samar Mubarakmand stated that the missile was a two-stage rocket with diameter of 1.4 m, length of 17.5 m, weight of 25 tons and a range of 2,500 km.
Re Entry Vehicle Of Shaheen 2 Missile System :-
The re-entry vehicle carried by the Shaheen 2 missile has a mass of 1050 kg, which includes the mass of a nuclear warhead and a terminal guidance system.
Shaheen 2 Missile
Shaheen 2 Missile Of Pakistan Army
This re-entry vehicle is unlike that of the Shaheen 1 in that it has four moving delta control fins at the rear and small solid/liquid-propellant side thrust motors, which are used to orientate the re-entry vehicle after the booster stage is depleted or before re-entry to improve accuracy by providing stabilization during the terminal phase. This can also be used to fly evasive manoeuvres, making it problematic for existing anti-ballistic missile (ABM) systems to successfully intercept the missile. The Shaheen 2 warhead may change its trajectory several times during re-entry and during the terminal phase, effectively preventing ABM radar systems from pre-calculating intercept points. The re-entry vehicle is also stated to utilize a GPS satellite guidance system to provide updates on its position, further improving its accuracy and reducing the CEP.
Foreign sources claim the missile to have an accuracy of 350 m CEP based on speculation that the design is the same or similar to one of several Chinese systems such as the M-18 or DF-25. However, according to a press video shown by NDC at the IDEAS 2004 Defense exhibition in Pakistan, the missile can achieve "surgical precision". This has led to speculation that Shaheen 2 incorporates a satellite navigation update system and/or a post separation attitude correction system to provide terminal course correction, which "may indicate a CEP of much less than 300 m." According to Harsh Pant, reader of international relations at the Defense Studies Department of King's College London, "the current capability of Pakistani missiles is built around radar seekers."
Future Developments :-
Since deployment of the 2,500 km range Shaheen 2, a multiple independently targeted re-entry vehicle (MIRV) system is under development which may be first fielded on the Shaheen 2.

Wednesday, June 4, 2014

The Ghauri-III Of Pakistan Strategic Forces

The Ghauri-III was an intermediate-range ballistic missile which was cancelled during its development stage. The Ghauri-III reportedly started development around 1999 with a planned range of over 3,000 km. Few details were known, but Ghauri III was presumed to be road mobile, being transported and launched by a transporter erector launcher. The warhead, like other Pakistani ballistic missiles, was believed to be either conventional or nuclear and guided by an inertial guidance system. The missile never entered service.
In May 2004 it was rumoured that the missile would be tested in June of that year. No test occurred in that year. Similarly in 2009 it was again reported that missile would be tested in August of that year but again no test took place.
Little public information was available about the missile until it was reported on 28 May 2011 that, according to the memoirs of Abdul Qadeer Khan published that day, the funding for the development of the Ghauri III missile system was stopped in May 2000 by then President Pervez Musharraf. Around 50% of the missile's development project was completed by that time.

Ghauri I Missile System
Approaching Target

Monday, June 2, 2014

Ghauri-II Missile Of Pak Army

Ghauri I Missile System
Approaching Target

The Ghauri-II is a medium-range ballistic missile (MRBM). A longer ranged variant of the Ghauri-I, it was developed by increasing the length of the motor assembly and using improved propellants.

Development :-
The Ghauri-I started development at the Khan Research Laboratories in 1993, with the first flight test occurring in 1998. The first flight test of the Ghauri-II took place in 1999 and the missile was handed over to the armed forces. Flight testing and improvements for both missiles continued into 2004.
Design :-
The Ghauri-II missile has a maximum range of 2,000 km (1,200 mi). It is 18.0 m in length, has a diameter of 1.35 m and a launch weight of 17,800 kg. Its payload is a single separating warhead weighing 1,200 kg, or as low as 750 kg for use at its maximum range. This may used to carry a 250 kg warhead of a 15 to 30 KT yield nuclear, HE or sub-munitions warhead. The missile uses a single-stage liquid propellant rocket motor.
The Ghauri-II design improves accuracy by a employing mechanisms that spin the single booster stage and warhead combination approximately 10 seconds before the termination of the powered flight phase at 110 seconds. At this point, the warhead is then separated from the booster stage to fly on a re-entry trajectory that remains stable to its target, greatly enhancing the missile's accuracy. With the addition of GPS targeting the warhead accuracy is further enhanced. Like most Pakistani missile systems, transporter erector launcher (TEL) vehicles are used to transport and launch Ghauri II.

Saturday, May 31, 2014

Ghauri I Missile System Of Pakistan

The Hatf 5 "Ghauri" is a medium-range ballistic missile (MRBM) developed by Khan Research Laboratories of Pakistan. The missile uses a single stage liquid fuel rocket motor to carry a payload of 700 kg to a range of 1,500 km. Two variants of the Ghauri were produced under the Pakistani missile research and development program and the development of a third was cancelled. The Ghauri-II uses increased motor assembly length and improved propellants for an increased range of 2,300 km (1,400 mi). The missile is named after Shahabuddin Muhammad Ghauri, while the "Hatf" designation originates from the name of the sword or lance of Muhammad.
Development and Production History :-
The Hatf 5 is believed to be based on North Korea's Rodong 1 (also known as Nodong 1) design. According to a Pakistani analyst the original design was flawed and the missile burned up on re-entry during its first test flight. The missile system eventually entered service after being heavily re-engineered by Pakistan's NESCOM and National Development Complex research and development organizations. According to the Federation of Atomic Scientists the Hatf 5 Ghauri is believed to inherit a warhead spin-up mechanism from the Nodong 1). It is stated that this feature could improve accuracy up to 190 m CEP, although this is still debatable. The mechanism involved using steering vanes to spin the missile after 100 seconds of flight time. After 110 seconds the rocket motor stops and the warhead separates from the rocket motor. The warhead then enters a more stable re-entry trajectory due to the spinning motion. Warhead accuracy would be further enhanced if the Ghauri's inertial navigation system is capable of being updated by GPS satellite signals.
Ghauri I Missile System
Approaching Target
Liquid fuel ballistic missiles are incapable of storing fuel for any long period of time. The Ghauri requires refuelling for several hours before launch and this makes it vulnerable to a first strike. It is believed that this is why Pakistan has not pursued liquid fuelled missiles other than the Ghauri and Ghauri 2. It also makes it less likely that the Hatf 5 missiles in Pakistani service would be armed with a nuclear warheads. Although it has been stated that it is capable of being loaded with "all types" of warheads.
Pakistan's latest solid-fuelled Shaheen 1A is believed to be an alternate missile system for the Hatf 5 Ghauri. However it has been stated that the Ghauri has advantages in lower cost than solid fuel missiles. This is advantageous when testing launch and control systems. It has been speculated that the Hatf 5 design may serve as a starting point for a Pakistani space launch vehicle.
Operational History :-
The Ghauri was first test-fired on 6 April 1998 from the Tilla Test-firing Range near Malute, Jhelum, about 76 miles south of the capital Islamabad. It was fired from a mobile launcher and travelled 1,100 km (680 mi) in a flight lasting 9 minutes and 58 seconds. At the time it was stated that the missile hit its designated target in the desert of Balochistan. It has since been revealed that this first test was not a success because the missile burned up during the re-entry phase of its flight.
The missile has since been tested in December 2010 and November 2012. The November 2012 launch was performed by a Strategic Missile Group of the Army Strategic Force Command. The test-flight was monitored by the new Strategic Command and Control Support System (SCCSS) and is believed to have been geared towards testing the SCCSS rather than the missile itself.

Friday, May 30, 2014

Shaheen 1 SRBM Of Pakistan Army

The Shaheen 1, is a codename of a missile system program that was developed by the joint venture of NESCOM and the National Defense Complex (NDC). It is dedicated and named after a species of Falcon found in the mountains of Pakistan. The Shaheen I is also designated Hatf IV. Both the Shaheen I and Shaheen IA are Pakistan's equivalent to the United States Pershing I and Pershing IA series.
Description and Design Specifications :-
        Shaheen 1 :-
Shaheen I is a short-range ballistic missile (SRBM) with an optimal range of 750 km and propelled by a two stage solid fuel rocket motor. The Shaheen 1 can deliver either a conventional or a nuclear payload much faster than liquid fuelled missiles such as the Ghauri because it does not need to be fuelled before launch, reducing deployment time significantly.
The Shaheen I is believed to be very accurate; Pakistani military sources state a CEP of 25 to 50 m can be achieved, partly due to a "post-separation attitude correction system." This system would allow the missile to modify its trajectory, improving accuracy and, along with the stealthy warhead shaping, giving some capability to evade missile defense systems. It is based on terminal guidance system technology, which improves warhead accuracy by firing small thrusters to adjust the warhead's trajectory and uses satellite navigation systems to help find the target. Such systems would allow the Shaheen to be used against strategic targets without requiring a nuclear warhead to ensure the target's destruction. According to other sources, the CEP of Shaheen I is 200 meters.
        Shaheen 1A :-
On 25 April 2012, Pakistan successfully test-launched an upgraded Shaheen I called Shaheen 1A. The military said in a statement that the Shaheen 1A is a medium-range ballistic missile. It is an improved version of the Shaheen 1 with better accuracy and double the range of its predecessor.
The Pakistani military initially did not publicly reveal the range of the missile which lead to media speculation of the true range of the missile. According to a defense analyst in Islamabad, this missile could be equipped with warheads designed to evade missile defense systems. The speed of the Shaheen 1A also provides an extremely high impact speed for nearby targets, enabling it to avoid any anti-ballistic missile defenses that may develop in the immediate region. A western official in Islamabad mentioned that the Shaheen 1A missile seems to have an improved ability to strike at its targets. It also has a more powerful engine, which means that it travels at scramjet speeds and can strike at longer distances than Shaheen-1.
On 25 April 2012, the ISPR revealed more information about the missile. The missile weight is approximately 10,000 kg, slightly heavier than its predecessor and can carry a single 1000 kg warhead. In addition, the Shaheen IA primarily contains sophisticated automated refueling and advanced stealth technology features that were not present in its previous version to avoid detections from radars. All three Shaheen missiles, Shaheen I, Shaheen 1A and Shaheen II are reportedly equipped with the latest PSAC (Post-Separation Attitude Correction) system. This is a unique feature which consists of small thrusters that can adjust the warhead trajectory for greater accuracy and evading anti-ballistic missile defense systems. The features of the missile could also serve as a test bed of features which could be implemented on the yet to be deployed Shaheen III.
Shaheen 1 SRBM Of Pakistan Army
Shaheen 1 SRBM Of Pakistan Army
Ready For Launch
In stark contrast of the claims made by Pakistani authorities in Islamabad about how Shaheen 1A is an "upgraded" or "improved" version of the preceding missile in the series, the Scientists of the Indian National Institute of Advanced Studies (NIAS) that closely monitors the progress of nuclear weapons technology, didn't find sufficient amount of upgradation or improvement to merit a new test on its own. This in their opinion was a much anticipated "tit-for-tat" launch.
The Scientists Concluded That :-
“There are no changes evident in the stage configuration and the main aerodynamic fins at the end of the missile and the exhaust look similar. The overall warhead length is comparable with the other images...[other changes to control and avionics systems] do not appear to be greatly significant... and do not have much impact on the missile range. Our assessment of the range of Shaheen 1 was 673 km for a launch from Islamabad in a south eastern (Azimuth 135 degrees) direction with a 1,000 kg re-entry vehicle. We do not find any evidence from the image put out by Pakistan to change this assessment. Longer range is however possible if Pakistan has reduced the missile throw-mass to below 1,000 kg.”
Only minor change in the missile according to NIAS was a shorter 1.6m long re-entry vehicle that was 2.3 m in earlier versions.
Hatf-IV Shaheen 1 :-
On April 10, 2013 Pakistan conducted a successful launch of intermediate range ballistic missile Hatf-IV (Shaheen-1). The Hatf-IV (Shaheen-1) missile incorporates a series of improvements in range and technical parameters of the existing warhead and is capable of carrying nuclear and conventional warheads to a range of 900 kilometers.
Operational History Of Shaheen 1 Missile :-
The Shaheen I was first test-launched on April 15, 1999. Two test-launches of a second version with greater range and improved accuracy were carried out in October 2002 and two more in October 2003. A batch of Shaheen I missiles, enough to equip one regiment/battery, was handed over to the Pakistan Army in 2003 along with mobile launchers. Another was tested on 8 May 2010 The Shaheen 1A was test fired on 25 April 2012.

Friday, May 23, 2014

Abdali Missile Of Pakistan Army

Abdali-I named after the Pashtun king Ahmad Shah Abdali, the founder of the Durrani Empire) is a supersonic short-range ballistic missile (SRBM) developed by the Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (SUPARCO), and currently in operational service with the Pakistan Armed Forces.
The Abdali program was conceived and originally designed by the Space Research Commission in 1990s. The program's first derivative was originally designed as the two-stage version of the Hatf-I, essentially a solid-propellant stage was attached to the bottom of a Hatf-I. However, the program was canceled in 1994, likely due to the purchase of the M-11 missiles from the People’s Republic of China. In 1995, SUPARCO successfully persuaded and designed a new module for the Abdali program which was started the same year.
Design and Specification Of Abdali Missile System Of Pakistan Army :-
Its accuracy is sufficient for use against military targets such as bases or airfields. It is carried on a road mobile Transporter-Erector-Launcher (TEL) vehicle. The use of solid propellant and the TEL vehicle make the missile easy to store, transport and fire.
The Abdali-I has a range of 180 km and an accuracy of 15 m CEP. It is equipped with an inertial guidance system with terminal guidance. It can be equipped with a variable payload up to 500 kg, and can carry single HE explosive or cluster sub-munitions warheads. It has a launch weight of 1,750 kg. It uses a single-stage solid propellant engine and has a length of 9.75 m and a width of 0.56 m. Abdali Missile Is capable of delivering tactical nuclear weapons.
Development History and Deployment Status Of Abdali Missile :-
The original Abdali-I missile started development in 1987 and was first displayed in 1989. Another consideration may have been the purchase from China of the M-11 missiles with similar capabilities. Since the program was restarted with a new design in 1997, it has been flight tested in 2002, 2005 and 2006. Abdali is currently deployed and under production.

Abdali Missile Of Pakistan Army During A Demonstration
Abdali Missile Of Pakistan Army During A Demonstration
( Portrait Of Muhammad Ali Jinnah In The Background)
Naming Controversy Of Abdali Missile :-
In February 2006, the Government of Afghanistan delivered a complained to Pakistan over naming its lethal ballistic missiles after Afghan kings and rulers (i.e. Abdali, Ghaznavid and Ghauri), arguing that their names should be bracketed with academic, cultural and peace-promoting institutions, not with tools of destruction and killing. However, Pakistan declined to change the missiles' names stating that these Muslim rulers are considered heroes in Pakistan as well, and naming missiles after them is not controversial.

Tuesday, May 20, 2014

Hatf One Missile Of Pakistan Army

Hatf I is a subsonic battlefield range ballistic missile (BRBM) which entered service with the Pakistan Army in the early 1990s. It is deployed as an artillery rocket and has been replaced by the improved Hatf-IA and Hatf-IB, which have a maximum range of 100 km.
Hatf is an Arabic word meaning "Deadly" or "Vengeance". The name comes from the sword of Prophet Muhammad Sallal Laho Alaihi Wa Aalihi Wa Sallam, Al-Hataf.
Development and Design Of Hatf One :-
Hatf I was designed in the 1980s as a highly mobile missile for tactical use. The design is said to have been derived from the second-stage of the French Eridan missile system. Its major use is as an unguided general bombardment weapon, to be fired across a battlefield or at a general target area. If properly aimed, it can hit within several hundred meters of the target area. The missile is low cost and easy to produce and maintain in large numbers. The Hatf I missile development program dates back to the 1980s. The Hatf-I was officially revealed by Pakistani officials in 1989 and it is believed to have entered service in 1992.
Hatf Nasr 9 Missile Of Pakistan Army
Hatf Nasr 9 Missile Of Pakistan Army
Strategic Forces Approaching Target Location
The Hatf I has a range of approximately 70 km (43 mi) and can carry a 500 kg conventional or non-conventional warheads. As it is unguided, it should be considered a long-range artillery shell, with the location of the impact depending upon the proper direction, angle of launch and the ability of the missile to fly straight. The Hatf-I is deployed with high explosive or cluster munitions, although it can theoretically carry a tactical nuclear weapon. The missile has a diameter of 0.56 m and is 6 m in length. It uses a single-stage solid propellant rocket motor.
The Hatf IA and Hatf IB are upgraded versions with improved range and accuracy. The Hatf IA increased maximum range to 100 km by using an improved rocket motor and lighter materials in the missile's construction. The dimensions and the payload capacity remain the same. Hatf-IA is believed to have entered service in 1995.
The Hatf IB represents the final evolution of the Hatf I missile system. It includes an inertial guidance system that considerably improves the accuracy of the missile and is otherwise identical to the Hatf IA, retaining the maximum range of 100 km and payload of 500 kg. The inertial guidance system allows the missile to be used as an artillery rocket against enemy military encampments or storage depots etc. The missile system is designed to be used like an artillery system, with 5-6 missiles fired simultaneously at the target area. Being a ballistic missile the Hatf-IB would reach its target much quicker than an ordinary artillery shell giving the target little warning to take evasive action.
Hatf-IB was first flight tested in February 2000. All current Hatf-I missiles have been upgraded to Hatf-IB standard as of 2001. The system is operational with Pakistan's armed forces.
Some Variants Of Htaf One Missile System Of Pakistan Army Strategic Forces :-
Hatf I - Maximum range: 70 km (43 mi) Payload: 500 kg (1,100 lb), unguided.
Hatf IA - Maximum range: 100 km (62 mi) Payload: 500 kg (1,100 lb), unguided.
Hatf IB - Maximum range: 100 km (62 mi) Payload: 500 kg (1,100 lb) with inertial navigation system.
Hatf IV - Maximum range: 900 km (560 mi) Payload: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb) with inertial navigation system.