Saturday, May 31, 2014

Ghauri I Missile System Of Pakistan

The Hatf 5 "Ghauri" is a medium-range ballistic missile (MRBM) developed by Khan Research Laboratories of Pakistan. The missile uses a single stage liquid fuel rocket motor to carry a payload of 700 kg to a range of 1,500 km. Two variants of the Ghauri were produced under the Pakistani missile research and development program and the development of a third was cancelled. The Ghauri-II uses increased motor assembly length and improved propellants for an increased range of 2,300 km (1,400 mi). The missile is named after Shahabuddin Muhammad Ghauri, while the "Hatf" designation originates from the name of the sword or lance of Muhammad.
Development and Production History :-
The Hatf 5 is believed to be based on North Korea's Rodong 1 (also known as Nodong 1) design. According to a Pakistani analyst the original design was flawed and the missile burned up on re-entry during its first test flight. The missile system eventually entered service after being heavily re-engineered by Pakistan's NESCOM and National Development Complex research and development organizations. According to the Federation of Atomic Scientists the Hatf 5 Ghauri is believed to inherit a warhead spin-up mechanism from the Nodong 1). It is stated that this feature could improve accuracy up to 190 m CEP, although this is still debatable. The mechanism involved using steering vanes to spin the missile after 100 seconds of flight time. After 110 seconds the rocket motor stops and the warhead separates from the rocket motor. The warhead then enters a more stable re-entry trajectory due to the spinning motion. Warhead accuracy would be further enhanced if the Ghauri's inertial navigation system is capable of being updated by GPS satellite signals.
Ghauri I Missile System
Approaching Target
Liquid fuel ballistic missiles are incapable of storing fuel for any long period of time. The Ghauri requires refuelling for several hours before launch and this makes it vulnerable to a first strike. It is believed that this is why Pakistan has not pursued liquid fuelled missiles other than the Ghauri and Ghauri 2. It also makes it less likely that the Hatf 5 missiles in Pakistani service would be armed with a nuclear warheads. Although it has been stated that it is capable of being loaded with "all types" of warheads.
Pakistan's latest solid-fuelled Shaheen 1A is believed to be an alternate missile system for the Hatf 5 Ghauri. However it has been stated that the Ghauri has advantages in lower cost than solid fuel missiles. This is advantageous when testing launch and control systems. It has been speculated that the Hatf 5 design may serve as a starting point for a Pakistani space launch vehicle.
Operational History :-
The Ghauri was first test-fired on 6 April 1998 from the Tilla Test-firing Range near Malute, Jhelum, about 76 miles south of the capital Islamabad. It was fired from a mobile launcher and travelled 1,100 km (680 mi) in a flight lasting 9 minutes and 58 seconds. At the time it was stated that the missile hit its designated target in the desert of Balochistan. It has since been revealed that this first test was not a success because the missile burned up during the re-entry phase of its flight.
The missile has since been tested in December 2010 and November 2012. The November 2012 launch was performed by a Strategic Missile Group of the Army Strategic Force Command. The test-flight was monitored by the new Strategic Command and Control Support System (SCCSS) and is believed to have been geared towards testing the SCCSS rather than the missile itself.

Friday, May 30, 2014

Shaheen 1 SRBM Of Pakistan Army

The Shaheen 1, is a codename of a missile system program that was developed by the joint venture of NESCOM and the National Defense Complex (NDC). It is dedicated and named after a species of Falcon found in the mountains of Pakistan. The Shaheen I is also designated Hatf IV. Both the Shaheen I and Shaheen IA are Pakistan's equivalent to the United States Pershing I and Pershing IA series.
Description and Design Specifications :-
        Shaheen 1 :-
Shaheen I is a short-range ballistic missile (SRBM) with an optimal range of 750 km and propelled by a two stage solid fuel rocket motor. The Shaheen 1 can deliver either a conventional or a nuclear payload much faster than liquid fuelled missiles such as the Ghauri because it does not need to be fuelled before launch, reducing deployment time significantly.
The Shaheen I is believed to be very accurate; Pakistani military sources state a CEP of 25 to 50 m can be achieved, partly due to a "post-separation attitude correction system." This system would allow the missile to modify its trajectory, improving accuracy and, along with the stealthy warhead shaping, giving some capability to evade missile defense systems. It is based on terminal guidance system technology, which improves warhead accuracy by firing small thrusters to adjust the warhead's trajectory and uses satellite navigation systems to help find the target. Such systems would allow the Shaheen to be used against strategic targets without requiring a nuclear warhead to ensure the target's destruction. According to other sources, the CEP of Shaheen I is 200 meters.
        Shaheen 1A :-
On 25 April 2012, Pakistan successfully test-launched an upgraded Shaheen I called Shaheen 1A. The military said in a statement that the Shaheen 1A is a medium-range ballistic missile. It is an improved version of the Shaheen 1 with better accuracy and double the range of its predecessor.
The Pakistani military initially did not publicly reveal the range of the missile which lead to media speculation of the true range of the missile. According to a defense analyst in Islamabad, this missile could be equipped with warheads designed to evade missile defense systems. The speed of the Shaheen 1A also provides an extremely high impact speed for nearby targets, enabling it to avoid any anti-ballistic missile defenses that may develop in the immediate region. A western official in Islamabad mentioned that the Shaheen 1A missile seems to have an improved ability to strike at its targets. It also has a more powerful engine, which means that it travels at scramjet speeds and can strike at longer distances than Shaheen-1.
On 25 April 2012, the ISPR revealed more information about the missile. The missile weight is approximately 10,000 kg, slightly heavier than its predecessor and can carry a single 1000 kg warhead. In addition, the Shaheen IA primarily contains sophisticated automated refueling and advanced stealth technology features that were not present in its previous version to avoid detections from radars. All three Shaheen missiles, Shaheen I, Shaheen 1A and Shaheen II are reportedly equipped with the latest PSAC (Post-Separation Attitude Correction) system. This is a unique feature which consists of small thrusters that can adjust the warhead trajectory for greater accuracy and evading anti-ballistic missile defense systems. The features of the missile could also serve as a test bed of features which could be implemented on the yet to be deployed Shaheen III.
Shaheen 1 SRBM Of Pakistan Army
Shaheen 1 SRBM Of Pakistan Army
Ready For Launch
In stark contrast of the claims made by Pakistani authorities in Islamabad about how Shaheen 1A is an "upgraded" or "improved" version of the preceding missile in the series, the Scientists of the Indian National Institute of Advanced Studies (NIAS) that closely monitors the progress of nuclear weapons technology, didn't find sufficient amount of upgradation or improvement to merit a new test on its own. This in their opinion was a much anticipated "tit-for-tat" launch.
The Scientists Concluded That :-
“There are no changes evident in the stage configuration and the main aerodynamic fins at the end of the missile and the exhaust look similar. The overall warhead length is comparable with the other images...[other changes to control and avionics systems] do not appear to be greatly significant... and do not have much impact on the missile range. Our assessment of the range of Shaheen 1 was 673 km for a launch from Islamabad in a south eastern (Azimuth 135 degrees) direction with a 1,000 kg re-entry vehicle. We do not find any evidence from the image put out by Pakistan to change this assessment. Longer range is however possible if Pakistan has reduced the missile throw-mass to below 1,000 kg.”
Only minor change in the missile according to NIAS was a shorter 1.6m long re-entry vehicle that was 2.3 m in earlier versions.
Hatf-IV Shaheen 1 :-
On April 10, 2013 Pakistan conducted a successful launch of intermediate range ballistic missile Hatf-IV (Shaheen-1). The Hatf-IV (Shaheen-1) missile incorporates a series of improvements in range and technical parameters of the existing warhead and is capable of carrying nuclear and conventional warheads to a range of 900 kilometers.
Operational History Of Shaheen 1 Missile :-
The Shaheen I was first test-launched on April 15, 1999. Two test-launches of a second version with greater range and improved accuracy were carried out in October 2002 and two more in October 2003. A batch of Shaheen I missiles, enough to equip one regiment/battery, was handed over to the Pakistan Army in 2003 along with mobile launchers. Another was tested on 8 May 2010 The Shaheen 1A was test fired on 25 April 2012.

Wednesday, May 28, 2014

Yaum-e-Takbeer 28 May 1998

Chagai 1 is the code name given to the five underground nuclear tests conducted by Pakistan at 1515 hrs PST on 28 May 1998. The tests were performed at the Ras Koh Hills in the Chagai District of the Balochistan Province of Pakistan.
The Chagai 1 the first public nuclear tests operation of Pakistan is considered a milestone in the history of Pakistan that was conducted in a direct response to India's second nuclear tests, Operation Shakti, on 11 and 13 May 1998. Nuclear weapon testing by Pakistan and India resulted in a variety of economic sanctions on both states by a number of major powers, particularly the United States and Japan. With the performance of the simultaneous atomic testing of the five nuclear devices, Pakistan, thus became the seventh nuclear power in the world to successfully develop and publicly test nuclear weapons, despite the international fury.
Birth Of Atomic Program Of Pakistan :-
The country's uneasy relationship with India, Afghanistan and the former Soviet Union explains its policy to become a nuclear power as part of its defence strategy. Since their independence from United Kingdom on August 1947, India and Pakistan had fought two declared wars over the disputed Kashmir territory; first war being fought in 1947-48 and second being fought in 1965.
Economic embargo placed by the United States, alliance with the West endangering the national security of the country, and the offset the country’s conventional inferiority against India and to counter the advancing Indian nuclear program after 1965, the country put efforts to launch a classified and clandestine atomic bomb project. Shortly after the war, the country acquired its first research reactor, PARR-I, from the United States and an international research institute, Pinstech, located in Nilore city in the Islamabad Capital Venue. In 1969, after successfully negotiating with the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) to supply Pakistan with a nuclear fuel reprocessing site capable of extracting 360g of weapons-grade plutonium annually. The PAEC chose five top scientists to receive training to gain expertise in nuclear fuel cycle as well as weapons-grade and reactor-grade plutonium. Agreements were made with Canada, France and the British consortium companies to expand the nuclear power infrastructure as part of the peaceful nuclear policy.
1971 War And Atomic Weapons Projects :-
The main turning point in Pakistan's decision-making was the 1971 war with India which led the loss of provisional state, East-Pakistan, which was succeeded as Bangladesh. Lasting only less than two weeks, 90,000 were taken as prisoners of war, including Pakistani soldiers and their East Pakistani civilian supporters. 79,676 prisoners were uniformed personnel, of which 55,692 were Army, 16,354 Paramilitary, 5,296 Police, 1000 Navy and 800 PAF around were taken as POWs by India as well as the 5,000 sq mi (13,000 km2) country's territory which held by India after the war. Although the territory and the POWs were returned to Pakistan, it left deep scars in Pakistan's civil society as well as leaving the political and military misery. The armed liberation war and the 1971 war was an unforgettable experience and lesson to political and military establishment. For Pakistan, it was a decisive defeat, a psychological setback that came from a defeat at the hands of intense rival India. Pakistan lost a significant part of its territory, a significant portion of its economy and its influential geo-political role in South Asia. At foreign fronts, Pakistan failed to gather any moral and foreign support even from her long-standing allies, particularly the United States, Turkey and the People's Republic of China. Since the independence, the physical existence Pakistan seemed to be in great mortal danger and quite obviously could rely on no one but itself.
All five atomic devices were the spherical-implosion-type
similar to one in the illustration. The government never released
the details of the technical aspects of the tested
weapons as a public domain due to its sensitivity.
The war played a crucial and groundbreaking role in the hearts of top scientists of the country who witnessed the war and control of remaining parts of the country was given to Zulfikar Ali Bhutto as country's elected Prime minister. Roughly two weeks after the disaster, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto called for a secret meeting of top and senior scientists in Multan on 20 January 1972 which later elevated as "Multan meeting". There, Zulfikar Bhutto authorized, initiated, and orchestrated the scientific research on atomic weapons bringing all the nuclear infrastructure under one chain of command. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, who was "obsessed" with Indian nuclear efforts, made extremely critical decisions and aggressively supervised the policy implementation of the atomic bomb project. In 1972, Bhutto appointed Abdus Salam as his science adviser and at same time, called nuclear engineer Munir Ahmad Khan from International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to lead the program administratively while Bhutto controlled the program as the political administrative figure. On November 1972, Bhutto assisted by Salam and Munir Khan, inaugurated the first commercial nuclear power, Kanupp-I in Karachi, Sindh Province. Along with Prof. Salam and Munir Ahmad Khan, the diameter of scientific research was expanded throughout the country. In PAEC, Salam established research divisions and groups that took charge to carry out the physics and mathematical calculations regarding to the development of the weapon. The atomic bomb project at an early stage was directed by Abdus Salam as he was the founding director of Theoretical Physics Group (denoted as TPG) and the and Mathematical Physics Group (denoted as MPG) at the PAEC to conduct mathematical and physics calculations regarding the fission devices.
On March 1974, the research on physical developments were initiated by Munir Khan and Abdus Salam after chairing a meeting in Pinstech Institute. At this meeting the word "bomb" was never used but the participants fully understood the nature of the work. This laid the foundation of "Wah Group Scientist" (denoted as WGS) with U.S. educated mechanical engineer Hafeez Qureshi as its director-general. During the same time, a new Directorate of Technical Development (DTD) was set up to coordinate work on the various specialized groups working in PAEC on the design, development, and testing of nuclear weapons under chemical engineer Dr. Shaikh Zaman. The far more complex assembly methods of implosion-bomb design was favored over the relatively simple gun-type method, and the productions of reactor and weapon-grade and separation of weapon-grade plutonium isotopes were massive undertakings by the PAEC.
The atomic bomb project was accelerated on May 1974 after India surprising Pakistan and the rest of the world after announcing the first explosion of nuclear device, Smiling Buddha in Pokhran Test Range of Indian Army. The goal to develop the atomic bombs became impetus after launching the uranium enrichment project, the Kahuta Project. In 1974, Abdul Qadeer Khan who was then working as a senior scientist at the URENCO Group and thus has access to highly classified information, directed a letter through the Pakistani Embassy in The Hague to offer his expertise, and officially joined the atomic bomb project in 1976. The Corps of Engineers under directorship of the General Zahid Ali Akbar, built the Engineering Research Laboratories (ERL) for that purpose and situated Abdul Qadeer Khan and his team at ERL for commercial and weapon-grade uranium enrichment. Finally in 1978, weapon designing and calculations were completed and a milestone in isotope separation was reached by the PAEC. In 1981, the physical development of the atomic bomb project was completed and the ERL successfully enriched the uranium above 5% and produces first batch of HEU fuel rods. On 11 March 1983, a milestone was achieved when PAEC led by Munir Ahmad Khan carried out the first cold test of a working nuclear device, codename Kirana 1. This was followed by 24 more cold tests by PAEC in which different weapon designs were tested and improved. After decades of covertly building and developing the atomic weapons program and the related atomic, Pakistan under the leadership of Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif, tested its five underground nuclear devices in Chagai Hills.
Test Planning And Preparations :-
Plans to conduct an atomic test started in 1976 when Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) research scientists frequently visiting the area to find a suitable location for an underground nuclear test, preferably a granite mountain. After a long survey, the PAEC scientists chose the granite mountain Koh Kambaran in the Ras Koh Hills range in the Chagai Division of Balochistan in 1978. Its highest point rises to a height of 3,009 metres (sources vary). The then-martial law administrator of the province, General Rahimuddin Khan, spearheaded the construction of the potential test sites throughout the 1980s.
In March 2005, the former Pakistan Prime minister Benazir Bhutto said Pakistan may have had an atomic weapon long before, and her father had told her from his prison cell that preparations for a nuclear test had been made in 1977, and he expected to have an atomic test of a nuclear device in August 1977. However, the plan was moved on to December 1977 and later it was delayed indefinitely. In an interview on TV, Samar Mubarakmand of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, has said that the team of Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission developed the design of atomic bomb in 1978 and had successfully conducted a cold test after developing the first atomic bomb in 1983.
The exact origin of the name is unknown, but it is often attributed to the weapon-testing laboratory leader Dr. Ishfaq Ahmad as a reference to the Chagai Hills, in spite of no nuclear experiments were performed at the vicinity of this site. It is generally believed that the codename was given in the Honour of the Chagai Hills in an attempt that it would not attract international and national attention of the world at where the exact tests were actually performed. On April 2010, Nawaz Sharif, at a public function to celebrate nuclear blasts, said the then U.S President Bill Clinton offered a package of US$5 billion for not carrying out nuclear blasts and warned about imposition of ban otherwise. Nawaz said that he was in Kazakhstan in a visit to meet the President, Nursultan Nazarbayev, when India tested its nuclear device. The entire nation was united in favor of nuclear blasts and Mushahid Hussain was the first person who advice that nuclear blasts should be carried out in reply of Indian nuclear explosions. In 1999, in an interview given to Pakistani and Indian journalists in Islamabad, Sharif had said: If India had not exploded the bomb, Pakistan would not have done so. Once New Delhi did so, we had no choice because of public pressure.
Test Predictions And Yields :-
The PAEC carried out five underground nuclear tests at the Chagai test site at 3:16 p.m. (PST) on the afternoon of 28 May 1998. The observation post was established about 10 km (about ~6.21 miles) from the test vicinity, with members of Mathematics groups and Theoretical Physics Group remained charged with calculating the yields. Calculating an accurate and precise yields are very hard to calculate even in a control environmental system, with many different possible ways the yields can be determined. The questions of politics also further disputed the exact figures. The total maximum yield of the tests was reported to be ~40 kilotons of TNT equivalent, with the largest (boosted) device yielding 30–36 kilotons. However, Western seismologists remains unconvinced and estimated the yield of the largest device to be no greater than 12 kilotons, leading U.S. nuclear weapons expert David Albright also remains skeptical about Pakistan's claims. U.S. scholars, based on the data they received from their computers, claimed that the possible yield ranged from 12-20kt as opposed to ~40kt by the Pakistan Government.

Live Video Footage Of Atomic Bomb Test Of Pakistan

The PAEC's mathematics division made the scientific data to public domain and published seismic activities, mathematical graphs, and mathematical formulas used to calculate the yield. After the tests, Prime minister Nawaz Sharif addressed the nation via Pakistan's government channel PTV and congratulated the entire nation and days of celebration followed throughout Pakistan.
From scientific data received by PAEC, it appears that Pakistan did not test a thermonuclear device, as opposed to India. According to Ishfaq Ahmad, PAEC had no plans to develop a three-stage thermonuclear device because of economic reasons, even though back in 1974, Riazuddin did propose such a plan to Abdus Salam, Director of Theoretical Physics Group that time. From the outset, PAEC concentrated on developing smaller tactical nuclear weapons easily installed in PAF aircraft, naval combatant vessels, and missiles.
Shortly after the tests, former chairman and technical director Munir Ahmad Khan famously quoted:
" These boosted devices are like a half way stage towards a thermonuclear bomb. They use elements of the thermonuclear process, and are effectively stronger atom bombs..... Pakistan has had a nuclear capability since 1984 and all the first five devices were made with the HEU. On other hand, Abdul Qadeer Khan further provided technical details on fission devices while addressing the local media as he puts it: "All boosted fission devices using U235 on 28 May. None of these explosions were thermonuclear. Pakistan is currently doing research and can do a fusion test if only asked. But it depends on the economical circumstances, political situation and the decision of the government." As opposed to India's thermonuclear approach, Dr. N.M. Butt, senior scientist, stated that "PAEC built a sufficient number of neutron bombs, a battlefield weapon that is essentially a low yield device."
Response By Pakistani Nation :-
The Directorate of Technical Development of PAEC which carried out the Chagai tests issued the following statement soon after the tests:

“The mission has, on the one hand, boosted the morale of the Pakistani nation by giving it an honorable position in the nuclear world, while on the other hand it validated scientific theory, design and previous results from cold tests. This has more than justified the creation and establishment of DTD more than 20 years back. Through these critical years of nuclear device development, the leadership contribution changed hands from Munir Ahmad Khan to Ishfaq Ahmad and finally to Mubarakmand. These gifted scientists and engineers along with a highly dedicated team worked logically and economically to design, produce and test an extremely rugged device for the nation which enable the Islamic Republic of Pakistan from strength to strength.”

Effects On Science In Pakistan :-
On this day, Pakistani scientists earned national renown in Pakistan, with Media of Pakistan projecting their biographies all over the country. Senior scientists and engineers were invited by a number of academic institutes and universities to deliver lectures on mathematical, theoretical, nuclear and particle physics. The institutes bestowed hundreds of silver and gold medallions and honorary doctorates to the scientists and engineers in 1998. Professor Abdus Salam (1926–1996) was also celebrated in Pakistan and Government of Pakistan released a commemorative stamp in the honor of Salam. In 1998, the theory of electroweak and its discovery two decade ago by Salam, was also celebrated nationwide for which Abdus Salam was awarded the Physics's Nobel Prize in 1979. In 1999, Government established Abdus Salam's museum in National Center for Physics, where his contribution to scientific programs and efforts were publicly recorded and televised. The 28 May has been officially declared as Yaum-e-Takbeer (Day of Greatness) to commemorate and remembrance of the first five tests that were carried out in 28 May, and as well as National Science Day in Pakistan to honor and remembrance the scientific efforts led by scientists to developed the devices. The day is celebrated by giving awards (such as Chagai-Medal) to various individuals and industries in the field of science and industries. The Nawaz Sharif Government also established the Chagai-I Medal and it was first awarded to the scientists of Pakistan in 1998 who were witnessed the tests. The graphite mountains are visibly shown in the gold medallion and equal ribbon stripes of yellow, red and white.

Friday, May 23, 2014

Abdali Missile Of Pakistan Army

Abdali-I named after the Pashtun king Ahmad Shah Abdali, the founder of the Durrani Empire) is a supersonic short-range ballistic missile (SRBM) developed by the Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (SUPARCO), and currently in operational service with the Pakistan Armed Forces.
The Abdali program was conceived and originally designed by the Space Research Commission in 1990s. The program's first derivative was originally designed as the two-stage version of the Hatf-I, essentially a solid-propellant stage was attached to the bottom of a Hatf-I. However, the program was canceled in 1994, likely due to the purchase of the M-11 missiles from the People’s Republic of China. In 1995, SUPARCO successfully persuaded and designed a new module for the Abdali program which was started the same year.
Design and Specification Of Abdali Missile System Of Pakistan Army :-
Its accuracy is sufficient for use against military targets such as bases or airfields. It is carried on a road mobile Transporter-Erector-Launcher (TEL) vehicle. The use of solid propellant and the TEL vehicle make the missile easy to store, transport and fire.
The Abdali-I has a range of 180 km and an accuracy of 15 m CEP. It is equipped with an inertial guidance system with terminal guidance. It can be equipped with a variable payload up to 500 kg, and can carry single HE explosive or cluster sub-munitions warheads. It has a launch weight of 1,750 kg. It uses a single-stage solid propellant engine and has a length of 9.75 m and a width of 0.56 m. Abdali Missile Is capable of delivering tactical nuclear weapons.
Development History and Deployment Status Of Abdali Missile :-
The original Abdali-I missile started development in 1987 and was first displayed in 1989. Another consideration may have been the purchase from China of the M-11 missiles with similar capabilities. Since the program was restarted with a new design in 1997, it has been flight tested in 2002, 2005 and 2006. Abdali is currently deployed and under production.

Abdali Missile Of Pakistan Army During A Demonstration
Abdali Missile Of Pakistan Army During A Demonstration
( Portrait Of Muhammad Ali Jinnah In The Background)
Naming Controversy Of Abdali Missile :-
In February 2006, the Government of Afghanistan delivered a complained to Pakistan over naming its lethal ballistic missiles after Afghan kings and rulers (i.e. Abdali, Ghaznavid and Ghauri), arguing that their names should be bracketed with academic, cultural and peace-promoting institutions, not with tools of destruction and killing. However, Pakistan declined to change the missiles' names stating that these Muslim rulers are considered heroes in Pakistan as well, and naming missiles after them is not controversial.

Thursday, May 22, 2014

Heckler & Koch P7 Of Pakistan Army

Heckler & Koch P7 Of Pakistan Army
Heckler & Koch P7 Of Saudi Arabia
The P7 is a semi-automatic blowback-operated firearm. It features a unique gas-delayed blowback locking system modeled on the Swiss Pistole 47 W+F (Waffenfabrik Bern) prototype pistol (and ultimately on the Barnitzke system first used in the Volkssturmgewehr 1-5), which used gas pressures from the ignited cartridge and fed them through a small port in the barrel (in front of the chamber) to retard the rearward motion of the slide. This is accomplished by means of a piston contained inside of a cylinder located under the barrel that opposes the rearward motion of the slide until the gas pressure has declined after the bullet has left the barrel hence allowing the slide to end its rearward motion, opening the breech and ejecting the empty cartridge case. The chamber has 18 flutes that aid in the extraction process by allowing combustion gases to flow between the fired case and the chamber walls, preventing the case from "sticking" to the chamber walls. The drawback of this system is that the breech "opens" slightly prematurely to allow the slide to initiate its rearward motion. The high temperature gases cycling through a tube located below the chamber area and above the trigger made the early versions of this pistol uncomfortable to shoot after the content of two magazines were fired due to heating. The advantages of this system are a simpler manufacturing process due to the absence of a locking system and a high mechanical accuracy due to the barrel being fixed in the frame; the barrel does not execute any sort of lateral or vertical movement during the operating cycle as with the prolific Browning cam-action systems used extensively in other locked breech pistols.
this gun is used by Pakistan army and its special services group for providing security.

Wednesday, May 21, 2014

SSG Pride Of Pakistan Army

Beginning Of Very Special Service Group :-
SSG Pakistan Army was raised by amalgamating 17/10th Baloch (19 Baloch) and 312 Garrison Company. Based out of Cherat and Attock, the SSG was created in 1956. That year, 19 Baloch was selected for conversion to a Special Operations Force. As a result of this, the SSG has inherited many of the traditions and insignia of the Baloch Regiment. The 19th Baloch Regiment's first commanding officer was Lieutenant Colonel Abu Bakar Usman Mitha who commanded it for six years till 1961. The first commander of its Alpha Company was Major Gaideen Khan Abdullai Mahsud. Their initial training and orientation as regards tactics was based on the US Special Forces pattern with whom they co-operated closely in the Cold War years. The SSG initially had 6 companies and each company had specialization units, specialized in desert, mountain, ranger, and underwater warfare. The desert companies participated in training exercises with US Army Special Forces Mobile Training Team in late 1964. In August 1965, scope of SSG was raised from a battalion size force to larger Special Operations outfit and instead of 19 Baloch (SSG) they simply adopted the name Special Service Group. The scuba company in Karachi was renowned for its tough physical training. Later on, Chinese training, tactics, weapons, and equipment were also introduced.
Special Operations Carried Out By Special Services Group :-
Hindustan Pakistan War In 1965 :-
The SSG guerrillas were initially deployed along the Afghanistan border to repel Afghanistan incursions into Pakistan, but their first major deployment came during the war of 1965. Around 120 officers and men were dropped on the night of 6/7 September near the Hindustani airbases of Adampur, Pathankot and Halwara. Due to the poor intelligence, inadequate preparations, difficult terrain, and poor visibility, none of the teams were able to regroup after the drops. Most of the men were either killed or captured by civilians and Indian armed forces, and only a few made it back to Pakistan. Captain Hazur Hasnain and a few Jawans captured an Indian Army jeep and made it back via Fazilka. The operation was a disaster. By 1971, the SSG had grown to 3 battalions with 1 permanently stationed in East Pakistan.
Hindustan Pakistan War In 1971 :-
The performance of the SSG in 1971 was much better, with 1 Commando Battalion making a spectacular raid on an Indian artillery regiment, disabling several of their guns and inflicting heavy casualties.
SSG Operations In Afghanistanistan During Soviet Afghanistan War :-
During the Soviet war in Afghanistanistan, the SSG was deployed, disguised as Afghanistans and provided support to the Mujahideen fighting the Soviets. Author Aukai Collins, in the book My Jihad, reports that Pakistani commandos have engaged the Soviet Airborne Forces in a battle that had taken place in 1986 or 1987, when the Soviet Army had inserted about three thousand Spetsnaz-aided paratroopers in an attempt to advance all the way to the Pakistani border. About three hundred Pakistani commandos teamed up with five hundred Mujahideen and fought the Spetsnaz for twenty seven days. Another battle reported as having been fought between the Pakistanis and Soviet troops, in Kunar Province in March 1986. But the Russians claim that the battle have actually been fought between the GRU Spetsnaz's 15th Spetsnaz Brigade, and the Asama Bin Zaid regiment of Afghanistan Mujahideen under Commander Assadullah, belonging to Abdul Rasul Sayyaf's faction.
SSG Operations In Siachen And Kargill Wars With Hindustan :-
The SSG was also active on the eastern border with India and they have fought in Siachen. In the Kargil war SSG performed rather well in the initial stages, infiltrating relatively deep into Indian Territory undetected as sheep herders. During the period of snowfall all the Indian posts were empty and they didn't have to face any repulsion, though later when Indian Army came to know about it resulted in a full-fledged war in which SSG suffered many casualties. In 1980, the SSG's Musa Company, which was originally formed in 1970 as a combat diver unit, was given the anti-terrorist operations role. Musa Company got the best founders in the beginning like Major Faiz Akbar Shah and Captain Sajjad Ali Shah. They were UDT/Seals qualified from class 79 of American Navy Seals. Captain Sajjad, who later retired as a Lieutenant Colonel was a salvage expert and had the intensive training of underwater demolition. Musa Company was trained by British SAS advisers in mid-1981.
Other Special Operations Carried Out By SSG :-
▪ The SSG was first used in 1965 in the State of Jammu & Kashmir. In an operation codenamed Gibraltar, their aims were continued reconnaissance, sabotage of Indian military facilities and the eventual liberation of Kashmir from Indian control, though the operation didn't end as success.
▪ The SSG lead the Operation Clean Wash to eliminate a group of terrorists in Makkah in 1979.
▪ In the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 they were once again used, this time in assistance to regular infantry units and for non-conventional and rescue operations. In the face of the massive political and military onslaught in East Pakistan, the SSG faced the Indian forces in the theater suffering heavy losses and could do little in turning the tide of war. Pervez Musharraf commanded a company of commandos during the war.
▪ SSG troops arrested Sheikh Mujibur Rahman on the night of 25 March 1971 during Operation Searchlight. Upon his arrest, they sent a message to Dhaka Cantonment headquarters saying,
"Big bird in the cage".
▪ The SSG was active in Afghanistan in the 1980s during the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, conducting covert and direct action missions. Again, when the balance of power shifted, it led some covert operations against the very Afghanistan government (Taliban) that Pakistan (along with USA, Saudi Arabia and UAE) had once aided, this time as part of the allied forces in operation Enduring Freedom. The SSG has aided in the capture of many senior Al Qaeda leaders, most notably Abu Zubaida and Khalid Shaikh Mohammed.
▪ The SSG has also conducted operations on the Siachen Glacier against Indian positions.
▪ In addition, some covert operations in United Nations military missions in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Somalia and Sierra Leone have also been executed by SSG operators.
▪ In Operation Black Thunderstorm, SSG troops abseiled from helicopters into Daggar, a town northwest of Islamabad, killing up to 50 militants.
Counter Terrorism Operations Of Special Services Group :-
▪ In September 1986, Pan Am Flight 73 was hijacked by terrorists while it was refueling in Karachi. As negotiations stalled and the terrorists started to kill passengers, SSG stormed the plane. The SSG killed one hijacker and captured the rest.
▪ In February 1994, Afghanistan hijackers took over a school bus with 74 children and 8 teachers. They drove to the Afghanistan mission in Islamabad where they released 57 students but kept 16 boys and the teachers. The negotiations led nowhere and it was decided to free the hostages by force. The Pakistani authorities had somehow managed to inform the children of the impending raid. The SSG commandos used a secondary explosion as a distraction and entered the room at the Afghanistan embassy where the hostages were being held, killing the three hijackers. The operation lasted about 20 seconds.
▪ In May 1998, three members of the Baloch terrorists took over a PIA Fokker plane because they were angry at the government for conducting nuclear tests in Baluchistan. As negotiations dragged, SSG commandos rushed the plane and apprehended all 3 hijackers. None of the passengers were harmed during the assault.
▪ On 30 March 2009, SSG successfully participated in thwarting the 2009 Lahore police academy attacks.
▪ On 10 October 2009, militants attacked the Pakistan Military Headquarters, taking hostage 42 civil and military officials. SSG commandos rescued 39 hostages and killed 9 militants, capturing one. The militants have been linked to Ilyas Kashmiri being a leading Al Qaeda commander operating alongside Tehrik-e-Taliban. A total of six SSG commandos and three hostages were killed in the operation. As reported by ISPR (Inter Services Public Relations) The operation was undertaken by SSG's Counter Terrorism Force. Three more SSG commandos, injured during the operation, died in the hospital on October 12.

SSG Pride Of Pakistan Army
SSG Pride Of Pakistan Army

Interaction With Other World Special Forces :-
SSG conducts regular (bi-annual) exercises with the Turkish Special Forces which have been designated as the "Ataturk" series. The first of these exercises was held in December 1998. The Turkish force included 21 officers and 14 non-commissioned officers. The second exercise of this series was held in November 2000, while Atatürk-III concluded in September 2002.
During the 1980s and then into the 1990s, SSG held many similar training exercises with US Special Forces called "Inspired Venture". These exercises were usually held during the early months of January and February with approximately 150 US troops. The exercises were focused on weapon familiarization and use, mountain-warfare along with tactics, raids and ambushes, and eventually airborne operations.
The SSG also conducts exercises with Chinese Special Forces. In 2006, China and Pakistan conducted an eight-day exercise called the Pakistan-China Joint Exercise Friendship-2006.
SSG has also been reported to train with the Jordanian Royal Special Forces and Iranian Quds Force and conducts training for Special Forces of other Middle Eastern countries at Cherat.
Deployment Of Special Services Group :-
Components of the battalions are constantly rotated between Cherat, Attock, Tarbela and any other hot spots (such as Pakistan-India border or when Pakistani forces are deployed overseas as part of the UN peace keeping operations) in order to provide experience to the operators. The SSG are used to provide security to various vital points such as the strategic nuclear facilities in Pakistan. It is thought that a number of SSG operators are stationed in Saudi Arabia for the protection of the Saudi royal family. Many SSG officers and other ranks are routinely seconded to the Directorate of Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) for clandestine and reconnaissance missions. SSG has planted some of their operatives under command of ISI within various civilian government and private institutions for various security purposes. The details of the operatives are highly classified. Most of the operatives of this "covert" division are planted in educational institutes.
Notable Operators Of Special Services Group :-
Major General Abu Bakar Usman Mitha is known as the Father of Special Service Group of Pakistan Army.
General Pervez Musharraf Commanded Operation To Release Khana Kaaba From Militants. Who was young and energetic commando was given the responsibility to lead the operation and clear the Kaaba from militants.
Lt. General (Retd) Haroon Aslam is known for leading Operation Rah-e-Rast in Swat valley in 2009. Under his command the (Special Services Group) fought bravely in Piochar Valley and liberated that area from the terrorists.
Brigadier Tariq Mehmood (Brigadier TM) was a legendary soldier and commander of SSG. Brigadier TM was one of the most decorated soldiers in Pakistan with 2 Sitara-e-Jurat (Bar), Sitar-e-Basalat and Hilal-e-Shujaat (posthumous). TM died on 29 May 1989, when his parachute did not open. One of the training exercises in Pakistan Military Academy is named after him (TM Raiders) and two crossroads (chowks) are named after him; one in Gujranwala, where he died and one in Rawalpindi outside the General Headquarters of Pakistan Army.
Colonel Abu Tahir from Bangladesh Army (was an officer of former Pakistan Army ) joined the elite Special Service Group (Commando Force) in 1965. He was one of the first Bengali Commandos who joined in SSG. Following his training, he participated in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 in the Kashmir sector and the Sialkot sector. For his part, he received a gallantry award from the Government of Pakistan. After the war, Tahir took advanced training on Guerrilla Warfare at Fort Bragg and Fort Benning in the United States in 1969. He was posted to the Quetta Staff College, Pakistan in 1970.He is considered as one of the best and most dangerous commandos in the history of SSG.
General Mirza Aslam Beg the Chief of Army Staff of Pakistan Army from 1987 to 1991. As a major, Beg commanded an SSG company in 1960 during the Dir-Bajaur Operation in the North-West Frontier Province.
General Shamim Alam Khan, former Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee. As a major, he commanded an SSG company in Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, for which he was awarded Sitara-e-Jurat.
Major General Ameer Faisal Alavi (28 March 1954 – 19 November 2008) was a Pakistan Army 2 star general and special operations expert who was the first General Officer Commanding (GOC) of the elite Special Service Group of Pakistan Army. A former member of Special Service Group, he was credited with masterminding the Angoor Ada operation in 2004, where many Arabs and Chechans based in the tribal areas were killed or arrested and turned over to the Americans. On 19 November 2008, while driving to work in his car in Islamabad, he was shot dead by three unknown gunmen. It was alleged that Ilyas Kashmiri, the chief of Jammu & Kashmir chapter of Harkat-ul-Jihad al-Islami, was behind the murder of Maj-Gen Alavi at the behest of the Taliban in North Waziristan.
History of Pakistan army is filled with stories of great sons of soil who sacrficed their lives for the greater good future of Pakistan. Many of these sons were trained by Special Services Group. Special Services Group is the most decorated independent battalion of Pakistan Army.

Tuesday, May 20, 2014

Hatf One Missile Of Pakistan Army

Hatf I is a subsonic battlefield range ballistic missile (BRBM) which entered service with the Pakistan Army in the early 1990s. It is deployed as an artillery rocket and has been replaced by the improved Hatf-IA and Hatf-IB, which have a maximum range of 100 km.
Hatf is an Arabic word meaning "Deadly" or "Vengeance". The name comes from the sword of Prophet Muhammad Sallal Laho Alaihi Wa Aalihi Wa Sallam, Al-Hataf.
Development and Design Of Hatf One :-
Hatf I was designed in the 1980s as a highly mobile missile for tactical use. The design is said to have been derived from the second-stage of the French Eridan missile system. Its major use is as an unguided general bombardment weapon, to be fired across a battlefield or at a general target area. If properly aimed, it can hit within several hundred meters of the target area. The missile is low cost and easy to produce and maintain in large numbers. The Hatf I missile development program dates back to the 1980s. The Hatf-I was officially revealed by Pakistani officials in 1989 and it is believed to have entered service in 1992.
Hatf Nasr 9 Missile Of Pakistan Army
Hatf Nasr 9 Missile Of Pakistan Army
Strategic Forces Approaching Target Location
The Hatf I has a range of approximately 70 km (43 mi) and can carry a 500 kg conventional or non-conventional warheads. As it is unguided, it should be considered a long-range artillery shell, with the location of the impact depending upon the proper direction, angle of launch and the ability of the missile to fly straight. The Hatf-I is deployed with high explosive or cluster munitions, although it can theoretically carry a tactical nuclear weapon. The missile has a diameter of 0.56 m and is 6 m in length. It uses a single-stage solid propellant rocket motor.
The Hatf IA and Hatf IB are upgraded versions with improved range and accuracy. The Hatf IA increased maximum range to 100 km by using an improved rocket motor and lighter materials in the missile's construction. The dimensions and the payload capacity remain the same. Hatf-IA is believed to have entered service in 1995.
The Hatf IB represents the final evolution of the Hatf I missile system. It includes an inertial guidance system that considerably improves the accuracy of the missile and is otherwise identical to the Hatf IA, retaining the maximum range of 100 km and payload of 500 kg. The inertial guidance system allows the missile to be used as an artillery rocket against enemy military encampments or storage depots etc. The missile system is designed to be used like an artillery system, with 5-6 missiles fired simultaneously at the target area. Being a ballistic missile the Hatf-IB would reach its target much quicker than an ordinary artillery shell giving the target little warning to take evasive action.
Hatf-IB was first flight tested in February 2000. All current Hatf-I missiles have been upgraded to Hatf-IB standard as of 2001. The system is operational with Pakistan's armed forces.
Some Variants Of Htaf One Missile System Of Pakistan Army Strategic Forces :-
Hatf I - Maximum range: 70 km (43 mi) Payload: 500 kg (1,100 lb), unguided.
Hatf IA - Maximum range: 100 km (62 mi) Payload: 500 kg (1,100 lb), unguided.
Hatf IB - Maximum range: 100 km (62 mi) Payload: 500 kg (1,100 lb) with inertial navigation system.
Hatf IV - Maximum range: 900 km (560 mi) Payload: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb) with inertial navigation system.

Sunday, May 18, 2014

Dragunov Sniper Weapon System Of Pakistan Army

Dragunov Sniper Weapon System Of Pakistan Army
Dragunov Sniper Weapon System Of Pakistan Army

The Dragunov is a semi-automatic gas-operated rifle with a short-stroke gas-piston system. The barrel breech is locked through a rotating bolt (left rotation) and uses three locking lugs to engage corresponding locking recesses in the barrel extension. The rifle has a manual, two-position gas regulator. After discharging the last cartridge from the magazine, the bolt carrier and bolt are held back on a bolt catch that is released by pulling the cocking handle to the rear. The rifle has a hammer-type striking mechanism and a manual lever safety selector. The firing pin is a "free-floating" type and, as a result, some soft-primered ammunition had the reputation of causing a "slam fire" event. Thus, military grade ammunition with primers confirmed to be properly seated is recommended for the Dragunov and its variants. This appears to have solved the "slam fire" issue. The rifle's receiver is machined to provide additional accuracy and torsional strength. The Dragunov's receiver bears a number of similarities to the AK action, such as the large dust cover, iron sights and lever safety selector, but these similarities are primarily cosmetic in nature.


Different Variant Of Dragunov Sniper Weapon System Of Pakistan Army
Different Variant Of Dragunov Sniper Weapon System Of Pakistan Army
For precision shooting, specifically designed sniper cartridges are used, developed by V. M. Sabelnikov, P. P. Sazonov and V. M. Dvorianinov. The proprietary 7N1 load has a steel jacketed projectile with an air pocket, a steel core and a lead knocker in the base for maximum terminal effect. The 7N1 was replaced in 1999 by the 7N14 round. The 7N14 is a new load developed for the SVD. It consists of a 151 grain projectile that travels at the same 830 m/s, but it has a sharp hardened steel core projectile. The rifle can also fire standard 7.62×54mmR ammunition with either conventional, tracer or armor piercing incendiary rounds.
Use By Pakistan Army :-
This Sniper Rifle is still in use by Pakistan army and its special services group along with other assault rifles and sniper rifles. but now Pakistan army is rapidly increasing its sniper units and arming them with latest high powered .50 cal sniper rifles which are the latest and most powerful sniper rifles at this time.
Other specifications of this sniper rifle are given below.

Specifications Of Dragunov Sniper Rifle :-
▪ 4.30 kg (9.48 lb) (with scope and unloaded magazine)
▪ 4.68 kg (10.3 lb) (SVDS)
▪ 4.40 kg (9.7 lb) (SVU)
▪ 5.02 kg (11.1 lb) (SWD-M)
Reticle Of Scope Of Dragunov Sniper Weapon System Of Pakistan Army
▪ 1,225 mm (48.2 in) (SVD)
▪ 1,135 mm (44.7 in) stock extended / ▪ 815 mm (32.1 in) stock folded (SVDS)
▪ 900 mm (35.4 in) (SVU)
▪ 1,125 mm (44.3 in) (SWD-M)
Barrel Length
▪ 620 mm (24.4 in) (SVD, SWD-M)
▪ 565 mm (22.2 in) (SVDS)
▪ 600 mm (23.6 in) (SVU)
▪ 7.62×54mmR
▪ Gas-operated, rotating bolt
Rate Of Fire
▪ 30 rounds/min
Muzzle Velocity
▪ 830 m/s (2,723 ft/s) (SVD)
▪ 810 m/s (2,657.5 ft/s) (SVDS)
▪ 800 m/s (2,624.7 ft/s) (SVU)
Effective Firing Range
▪ 800 m (875 yd)
Feed System
▪ 10-round detachable box magazine
▪ PSO-1 telescopic sight and iron sights with an adjustable rear notch sight

Saturday, May 10, 2014

Pakistan China Military Exercises "Peace Angel 2014"

Two week long Pak - China Joint Military exercise commenced  here today near Rawalpindi. Flags of both countries were hoisted and national anthem played to mark the opening of joint military exercise in a ceremony held today. Major General Hamayun Aziz, Pakistan Army and senior colonel Liu Agiou, People Liberation Army China, represented their respective counties in the opening ceremony.
            The joint exercise is aimed at sharing mutual experience and information in medical field through a comprehensive training programme in near real time environment. The exercise is particularly designed within the scope of disaster relief operations caused due to massive floods and terrorist attacks on relief camps. The exercise will also provide an opportunity to exchange latest technological advancement in medical field to improve medical operations during peace and war.
            The  joint military exercise "Peace Angel 2014" will certainly pave the way for further cementing the existing bilateral relations between armies of the two countries.
Pakistan China Military Exercises Peace Angel 2014
Pakistan China Military Exercises "Peace Angel 2014"

Thursday, May 8, 2014

Army Air Defense Command Of Pakistan Army

The Pakistan Army Air Defense Command is an active military administrative combatant staff corps of the Pakistan Army and a major combative formation tasked with air defenses of the country from the foreign threats. The Corps is stationed and headquartered at the Chaklala Army Cantonment in Rawalpindi, Punjab Province of Pakistan. The command was formed after military exercise when the Pakistani military learned of its weakness in providing air cover to a moving battlefield. It consists of a total of five military divisions; one tasked with air defense of the northern region of Pakistan and the other with the southern region. Army Air Defense has its own school named as School of Army Air Defense (SAAD).
Army Air Defense Command Of Pakistan Army
Pakistan Army Air Defense Missile Approaching Target

Wednesday, May 7, 2014

Al-Zarrar Tank Of Pakistan Army

Al-Zarrar Tank Of Pakistan Army
Al-Zarrar Tank Of Pakistan Army
During a Demonstrtion
The Al-Zarrar is a modern main battle tank (MBT) developed and manufactured by Heavy Industries Taxila (HIT) of Pakistan for the Pakistan Army. The KMDB design bureau of Ukraine also took part in the development project. A re-built, upgraded variant of the Chinese Type 59 tank, Al-Zarrar is supposed to be a cost-effective replacement for the Type 59 fleet of the Pakistan Army. Equipped with modern armament, fire control and ballistic protection, the Al-Zarrar upgrade is also offered by HIT to the armies of foreign countries to upgrade their T-54/T-55 or Type 59 tanks to Al-Zarrar standard. 54 modifications made to the Type 59 make the Al-Zarrar effectively a new tank. The Al-Zarrar development program started in 1990 and the first batch of 80 upgraded tanks were delivered to the Pakistan Army on 26 February 2004.

History :-
It was decided by the Pakistan Army that their inventory of Chinese origin Type 59 tanks was too large to be discarded and replaced, so a phased upgrade program was started by Heavy Industries Taxila (HIT) in 1990. The idea was to upgrade the firepower, mobility and protection of the Type 59 to allow it to compete on the modern battlefield at a fraction of the cost of a modern main battle tank (MBT). The first phase of the upgrade program was completed in 1997. The second phase started in 1998 when HIT began development and testing of a new tank, a Type 59 re-built with over 50 modifications, resulting in three prototypes with slightly differing specifications (different fire-control systems, for example). Many systems originally developed for HIT's Al-Khalid MBT were incorporated. The prototypes underwent extensive testing by HIT and the Pakistan Army, who selected the final version of the tank, dubbed Al-Zarrar. HIT began full production of Al-Zarrar during May 2003 under a renowned Project Manager Mahmood Khan.
Design Specifications Of Al Zarrar Tank :-
Armament And Fire Control :-
Al-Zarrar's primary armament is a 125 mm smoothbore tank gun with an autofrettaged, chrome-plated gun barrel. It is capable of firing APFSDS, HEAT-FS and HE-FS rounds as well as anti-tank guided missiles and a Pakistani DU (depleted uranium) round, the 125 mm Naiza. Naiza is capable of penetrating 550 mm of RHA armour at a distance of 2 km. Reloaded by a semi-automatic auto loader, the gun has a dual-axis stabilization system and thermal imaging sights for the commander and gunner. Integrated into the fire-control system. The image stabilized fire-control system includes a laser range-finder for accurate range information and ballistics computer to improve accuracy. An improved gun control system is also fitted. The secondary armament consists of an external 12.7 mm anti-aircraft machine gun mounted on the roof of the turret, which can be aimed and fired from inside the tank, and a 7.62 mm coaxial machine gun.
Al-Zarrar Tank Of Pakistan Army
Al-Zarrar MBTs Of The Pakistan Army's
27th Cavalry Regiment Stationed At Kharian.
Mobility and Protection :-
The Al-Zarrar is powered by a liquid-cooled 12-cylinder diesel engine, giving a power output of 730 hp (540 kW) and torque output of 305 kg.m at 1300–1400 rpm. A combat weight of 40 tonnes gives Al-Zarrar a power-to-weight ratio of 18.3 hp/tonne and a top speed of 65 km/h. Crew comfort is improved over the Type 59 by a modified torsion bar suspension system.
Al-Zarrar uses modular composite armor and explosive reactive armor to give improved protection from anti-tank missiles, mines and other weapons. The Pakistani ATCOP LTS-1 laser threat warning system is fitted to inform the tank crew if the tank is targeted by a laser range-finder or laser designator. Smoke grenade launchers are fitted to the sides of the turret. An automatic fire-extinguishing and explosion suppression system is installed to improve crew survivability.

Monday, May 5, 2014

Pakistan Army The String Of The Federation

“A federation is a union comprised of a number of partially self-governing states (or provinces) united by a central (“federal”) government,” notes Zhenis Kembayev in Legal Aspects of the Regional Integration Processes in the Post-Soviet Area (Springer 2009, 17).
Pakistan is a federation from conceptual and constitutional points of view. The 1973 Constitution of Pakistan is built around a federal system, which is in vogue in better parts of the world. Part III of the constitution gives out complete structure of the federation. The federation of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan comprises The Punjab, The Sindh, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa and Balochistan provinces, Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and the Gilgit-Baltistan region. Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJ&K) has a special azad status awaiting solution in accordance with the UN resolutions calling for plebiscite, which has not yet been held due to the hard Indian stance. India has illegally occupied a sizeable part of Kashmir, the Indian Occupied Kashmir (IOK), for last over six and a half decade.
There are numerous colours of the federation of Pakistan such as the provinces, regions, civil society and political parties. Media is yet another beautiful colour. However, the core colour of Pakistan, like any other country, is the populace, around which everything is knited ranging from security to economy and politics to governance. Besides, there are government institutions among the bright colours of the country. Pakistan Army is one of them. It is a prime security institution of the country, with special mention in the constitution as regards its role and functions. Chapter II of the Constitution entitled 'Armed Forces' delineates command, oath and functions of the armed forces.
Conceptually speaking, national security comprises two important segments: state security and human security. Pakistan Army, with other armed services of the country, is the prime institution for defence against external aggression, certainly with full backing of the nation. This is the role played by the army to take care of the state security segment of the national defence. It is defending thousands of kilometres of borders in pursuance of its role. Pakistan Army is also part of the UN Peacekeeping forces since 1960s. In this role, it has been deployed (and a better part of it is still deployed) across the globe in various conflict-ridden countries.
Due to its state security function, it remains to be one of the vital organs of Pakistan, and is nothing less than a string of the federation. Inter alia, Article 39 of the constitution entitled 'Participation of people in Armed Forces' notes: “The State shall enable people from all parts of Pakistan to participate in the Armed Forces of Pakistan.” This article is being practically applied as Pakistan Army represents the Federation in true sense of the word. In first place, it is a national army comprising people from all provinces and regions of Pakistan. Pakistan Army's officers corps and soldiers’ cadre is made up of the Punjabi, Pashtun, Sindhi, Balochi, Brahvi, Seraiki, Qabaili, Kashmiri, Gilgiti, Balti, Chitrali and all other ethno-linguistic communities, even if missed out a mention herein. All of them have their own soldierly characteristics and a unique kind of love for the country.
Among others, massive recruitment of the Baloch youth in Pakistan Army is a very healthy trend. On 12 December 2013, during a soldiers' passing out ceremony in the Training Centre of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering (EME) Corps located at Quetta along with Dr Abdul Malik, the Chief of Minister Balochistan, Chief of Army Staff General Raheel Sharif said that 20,000 Baloch have joined the ranks of Pakistan Army as soldiers since 2010. He went on to say: “This overwhelming willingness of the Baloch youth to join Pak Army exhibits their unflinching love for Pakistan and genuine concern with its defence.” This is in indeed awe-inspiring. In addition to these soldiers, hundreds of Baloch are serving Pakistan Army as officers.
Many people know that Pakistan Army's structure symbolizes Pakistan's federational structure. It is exhibited well from its regiments named after the regions and provinces of Pakistan to include the Punjab Regiment, the Baloch Regiment, the Frontier Force Regiment, the Sindh Regiment, the Azad Kashmir (AK) Regiment and the Northern Light Infantry (NLI) Regiment. It may be interesting for some to know that the Baloch Regiment is the second oldest regiment after the Punjab Regiment. Not that the soldiers hailing from only these provinces or regions join these regiments, but it is always a rainbow combination in all regiments. However, the names of these regiments show the primary colours of federation i.e. the federating units.
It is indeed true to say that Army is not a profession but a way of life. The officers and soldiers of Pakistan Army think as the member of the institution and the defenders of the motherland, and not through the prism of provincialism, ethnicity, religion or sect. It is another case that all tribes, ethnicities, languages, provinces, religions and sects are respected and regarded on equal. This too deserves a mention that Pakistan Army has representation from all religious and sectarian communities. Certainly, being a country with 97 % Muslim population, the bulk of officers and soldiers of Pakistan Army are Muslim. However, other religious communities are also represented and respected. There have been Christian and Pasri officers who rose quite    high in the ladder     of career advancement. Some of them are still serving. There is representation from Hindu and Sikh community, too, in the officers' corps and a number of Christian soldiers are also serving in the army. The even more satisfying feature is that all religio-sectarian communities have liberty to pursue the rituals and morals of their faith and beliefs without any coercion or compulsion in line with the true Islamic teachings and the ideals of the Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah that “You are free; you are free to go to your temples, you are free to go to your mosques or to any other place of worship in this State of Pakistan. You may belong to any religion or caste or creed – that has nothing to do with the business of the State.”
Pakistan Army The String Of The Federation
Apart from its security functions, Pakistan Army is also committed to playing a role in the realm of human security in all regions and provinces. Commitment in combating militancy and terrorism is but one such example, a role in which it has gone beyond the limits of national expectations and sacrificed thousands of lives. Besides, it is playing a formative part in the sphere of education across the country. Some 133,416 students are studying in the Army Public Schools and Colleges, who are the children of army personnel as well as civilians. Besides, 7,831 teachers are employed in these schools and colleges, which is another unique contribution in the realm of human security. A number of national highways connecting all parts and provinces of the federation have also been constructed by Pakistan Army's Frontier Works Organization (FWO). Pakistan Army has remarkably contributed to disaster management. In this role, it remains busy round the clock from rescue, relief and rehabilitation activities at Attabad Lake in Gilgit-Baltistan to earthquake relief in Awaran district of Balochistan. The role of Pakistan Army towards human security in Pakistan will be covered in more details in some article subsequently.
In sum, Pakistan Army is playing a constructive and transformative role across both domains of national security i.e. the state security and human security, across the country, and is representative of all federating units of Pakistan in keeping with Article 39 of the Constitution. Thus, Pakistan Army can be regarded as a true string of the federation, which links people from all areas both physically and conceptually.

Colonel Ehsan Mehmood Khan
Article Taken From :-

Saturday, May 3, 2014

Two Nation Theory | Muhammad Ali Jinnah

Two Nation Theory

Muhammad Iqbal's statement explaining the attitude of Muslim delegates to the London's round-table conference issued in December 1933 was a rejoinder to Jawahar Lal Nehru's statement.

In conclusion, I must put a straight question to Pandit Jawahar Lal, how is India's problem to be solved if the majority community will neither concede the minimum safeguards necessary for the protection of a minority of 80 million people, nor accept the award of a third party; but continue to talk of a kind of nationalism which works out only to its own benefit? This position can admit of only two alternatives. Either the Indian majority community will have to accept for itself the permanent position of an agent of British imperialism in the East, or the country will have to be redistributed on a basis of religious, historical and cultural affinities so as to do away with the question of electorates and the communal problem in its present form.

In Muhammad Ali Jinnah's All India Muslim League presidential address delivered in Lahore, on March 22, 1940, he explained.

It is extremely difficult to appreciate why our Hindu friends fail to understand the real nature of Islam and Hinduism. They are not religions in the strict sense of the word, but are, in fact, different and distinct social orders, and it is a dream that the Hindus and Muslims can ever evolve a common nationality, and this misconception of one Indian nation has troubles and will lead India to destruction if we fail to revise our notions in time. The Hindus and Muslims belong to two different religious philosophies, social customs, litterateurs. They neither intermarry nor interdine together and, indeed, they belong to two different civilizations which are based mainly on conflicting ideas and conceptions. Their aspect on life and of life are different. It is quite clear that Hindus and Mussalmans derive their inspiration from different sources of history. They have different epics, different heroes, and different episodes. Very often the hero of one is a foe of the other and, likewise, their victories and defeats overlap. To yoke together two such nations under a single state, one as a numerical minority and the other as a majority, must lead to growing discontent and final destruction of any fabric that may be so built for the government of such a state.

In 1944,Jinnah said.

We maintain and hold that Muslims and Hindus are two major nations by any definition or test of a nation. We are a nation of hundred million and what is more, we are a nation with our own distinctive culture and civilization, language and literature, art and architecture, names and nomenclature, sense of values and proportions, legal laws and moral codes, customs and calendar, history and tradition, and aptitude and ambitions. In short, we have our own outlook on life and of life.
Two Nation Theory and Muslim Leaders
Two Nation Theory | Muhammad Ali Jinnah

Thursday, May 1, 2014

Yaum-e-Shohda For Martyrs Observed By Pakistan Army

Pakistan army observes a special day just for remembering the martyrs who sacrificed their lives for the greater and brighter future of our Motherland Pakistan. This day is celebrated all around the country in all army Garrison head quarters and Major ceremony is held at generals headquarter In Rawalpindi. Pakistan army yearly celebrates this day at 30th of April.
Several ceremonies were held at the Garrisons all over the country but the biggest ceremony was held at Yadqar-e-Shuhada, General Headquarters (GHQ) Rawalpindi. The ceremony was attended by the families of Shuhada, serving and retired officers of the armed forces and a large number of people. Chief of Army Staff (COAS) General Raheel Sharif will also offer Fateha for the martyrs after laying floral wreath at the Shuhada Monument.
Yaum-e-Shohda For Martyrs Observed By Pakistan Army
Yadgar-e-Shuhada In Rawalpindi