Showing posts with label Pakistan Strategic Weapons. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Pakistan Strategic Weapons. Show all posts

Friday, October 24, 2014

Nuclear Weapons Program Of Pakistan Introuction

Nuclear Weapons Program Of Pakistan
Nuclear Weapons Program Of Pakistan
Pakistan began focusing on nuclear weapons development in January 1972 under the leadership of Prime Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, who delegated the program to the Chairman of PAEC Munir Ahmad Khan. In 1976, Abdul Qadeer Khan also joined the nuclear weapons program, and, with Zahid Ali Akbar, headed the Kahuta Project, while the rest of the program being run in PAEC and comprising over twenty laboratories and projects was headed by nuclear engineer, Munir Ahmad Khan. This program would reach fruition under President General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq, then-Chief of Army Staff. Pakistan's nuclear weapons development was in response to neighboring India's development of its nuclear programme. Bhutto called a meeting of senior scientists and engineers on 20 January 1972, in Multan, which came to known as "Multan meeting". Bhutto was the main architect of this programme and it was here that Bhutto orchestrated nuclear weapons programme and rallied Pakistan's academic scientists to build the atomic bomb for national survival. At the Multan meeting, Bhutto also appointed Munir Ahmad Khan as chairman of Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), who, until then, had been working as Director at the nuclear power and Reactor Division of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), in Vienna, Austria. In December 1972, Abdus Salam led the establishment of Theoretical Physics Group (TPG) as he called scientists working at ICTP to report to Munir Ahmad Khan. This marked the beginning of Pakistan's pursuit of nuclear deterrence capability. Following India's surprise nuclear test, codenamed Smiling Buddha in 1974, the first confirmed nuclear test by a nation outside the permanent five members of the United Nations Security Council, the goal to develop nuclear weapons received considerable impetus.

Friday, July 25, 2014

Safety Level Of Pakistani Nuclear Arsenal

INDIA'S explosion of its nuclear device in 1974 drew only a customary “show of concern” from the western powers. But Pakistan's nuclear program, initiated in response to the Indian acquisition of nuclear weapons, evoked immediate and “serious concern” from the same quarters. Ever since, Pakistan has been under immense pressure to scrap its program while the Indians remain uncensored.

That western attitude was discriminatory can also be seen by the religious colour it gave to Pakistan's bomb by calling it an 'Islamic bomb'. One has never heard of the Israeli bomb being called a 'Jewish Bomb', or the Indian bomb a 'Hindu Bomb', or the American and British bomb a 'Christian Bomb' or the Soviet bomb a 'Communist' (or an 'Atheist) Bomb'. The West simply used Pakistan's bomb to make Islam synonymous with aggression and make its nuclear program a legitimate target, knowing full well that it merely served a defensive purpose and was not even remotely associated with Islam.
Main Battle Tanks Developed By Pakistan
With India going nuclear soon after playing a crucial role in dismembering Pakistan in 1971 and enjoying an overwhelming conventional military superiority over Pakistan in the ratio of 41, a resource strapped Pakistan was pushed to the wall. Left with no other choice but to develop a nuclear deterrent to ward off future Indian threats, Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto declared “Pakistanis will eat grass but make a nuclear bomb”. And sure enough, they did it. Soon, however, both he and the nuclear program were to become non-grata. Amid intense pressure, sanctions and vilification campaign, Henry Kissinger personally delivered to a defiant Bhutto the American threat “give up your nuclear program or else we will make a horrible example of you'.
And a horrible example was made of Bhutto for his defiance. But he had enabled Pakistan to become the 7th nuclear power in the world. This served Pakistan well. India was kept at bay despite temptations for military adventurism. Although there has never been real peace in South Asia, at least there has been no war since 1971.
Ignoring its security perspective, Pakistan's western 'friends' refused to admit it to their exclusive nuclear club, though expediency made them ignore its 'crime' when it suited their purpose. But driven by identical geo-strategic interests in their respective regions and seeing Pakistan as an obstacle to their designs, Israel and India missed no opportunity to malign or subvert Pakistan's program.
Due to its defiance of Indian diktat, Pakistan is for India an obstruction in its quest for domination of South Asia and the Indian Ocean region. Israel's apprehension of Pakistan's military prowess is rooted in the strength Pakistan indirectly provides to Arab states with whom Israel has remained in a state of conflict. Conscious that several Arab states look up to Pakistan for military support in the event of threat to their security from Israel, it is unsettling for Israel to see a nuclear armed Pakistan.
Israel can also not overlook the fact that Pakistan's military is a match to its own. The PAF pilots surprised Israeli Air Force, when flying mostly Russian aircraft they shot down several relatively superior Israeli aircraft in air combat in the 1973 Arab-Israel war, shattering the invincibility myth of Israeli pilots who believed themselves to be too superior in skill and technology. The Pakistanis happened to be assigned to Jordanian, Syrian and Iraqi air forces on training missions when the war broke out and, unknown to the Israelis then, they incognito undertook combat missions.
Ballistic Missile And Guided Missile Systems Developed By Pakistan
Ballistic Missile And Guided Missile Systems Developed By Pakistan
After successfully destroying Iraqi nuclear reactor in 1981, Israelis planned a similar attack on Pakistan's nuclear facilities at Kahuta in collusion with India in the 1980s. Using satellite pictures and intelligence information, Israel reportedly built a full-scale mock-up of Kahuta facility in the Negev Desert where pilots of F-16 and F-15 squadrons practiced mock attacks.
According to 'The Asian Age', journalists Adrian Levy and Catherine Scott-Clark stated in their book 'Deception Pakistan, the US and the Global Weapons Conspiracy', that Israeli Air Force was to launch an air attack on Kahuta in mid-1980s from Jamnagar airfield in Gujarat (India). The book claims that “in March 1984, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi signed off (on) the Israeli-led operation bringing India, Pakistan and Israel to within a hair's breadth of a nuclear conflagration”.
Another report claims that Israel also planned an air strike directly out of Israel. After midway and midair refueling, Israeli warplanes planned to shoot down a commercial airline's flight over Indian Ocean that flew into Islamabad early morning, fly in a tight formation to appear as one large aircraft on radar screens preventing detection, use the drowned airliner's call sign to enter Islamabad's air space, knock out Kahuta and fly out to Jammu to refuel and exit.
According to reliable reports in mid-1980s this mission was actually launched one night. But the Israelis were in for a big surprise. They discovered that Pakistan Air Force had already sounded an alert and had taken to the skies in anticipation of this attack. The mission had to be hurriedly aborted.
Pakistan reminded the Israelis that Pakistan was no Iraq and that PAF was no Iraqi Air Force. Pakistan is reported to have conveyed that an attack on Kahuta would force Pakistan to lay waste to Dimona, Israel's nuclear reactor in the Negev Desert. India was also warned that Islamabad would attack Trombay if Kahuta facilities were hit.
The above quoted book claims that “Prime Minister Indira Gandhi eventually aborted the operation despite protests from military planners in New Delhi and Jerusalem.”
McNair's paper #41 published by USAF Air University (India Thwarts Israeli Destruction of Pakistan's "Islamic Bomb") also confirmed this plan. It said, “Israeli interest in destroying Pakistan's Kahuta reactor to scuttle the "Islamic bomb" was blocked by India's refusal to grant landing and refueling rights to Israeli warplanes in 1982.” Clearly India wanted to see Kahuta gone but did not want to face retaliation at the hands of the PAF. Israel, on its part wanted this to be a joint Indo-Israeli strike to avoid being solely held responsible.
The Reagan administration also hesitated to support the plan because Pakistan's distraction at that juncture would have hurt American interests in Afghanistan, when Pakistan was steering the Afghan resistance against the Soviets.
Although plans to hit Kahuta were shelved, the diatribe against Pakistan's nuclear program continued unabated. Israel used its control over the American political establishment and western media to create hysteria. India worked extensively to promote paranoia, branding Pakistan's program as unsafe, insecure and a threat to peace. The fact is otherwise. It is technically sounder, safer and more secure than that of India and has ensured absence of war in the region.
Pakistan Air Force Jets
Pakistan Air Force Jets
The US invasion of Afghanistan provided another opening for Indo-Israeli nexus to target Pakistan's strategic assets. This time the strategy was to present Pakistan as an unstable state, incapable of defending itself against religious extremist insurgents, creating the specter of Islamabad and its nuclear assets falling in their hands. Suggestions are being floated that Pakistan being at risk of succumbing to extremists, its nuclear assets should be disabled, seized or forcibly taken out by the US. Alternatively, an international agency should take them over for safe keeping.
Pakistan has determinedly thwarted the terrorist threat and foiled this grand conspiracy. Pakistan has made it clear that it would act decisively against any attempt by any quarter to harm its nuclear assets. But if the game is taken to the next level, the consequences would be disastrous for the region.
The Indo-Israeli nexus is losing initiative. But as long as the American umbrella is available Afghanistan will remain a playground for mischief mongers. It is now up to the US to walk its talk and prove its claim that it wants to see a secure and stable Pakistan. It must pull the plug on conspiracies to destabilize Pakistan.

Tuesday, June 24, 2014

Anza Anti Aircraft Missile Of Pak Army

Anza is a series of shoulder-fired, man-portable surface-to-air missiles produced by Pakistan. Guided by an infra-red homing seeker, Anza is used for low level air defense.
Anza is produced by Kahuta Research Laboratories (KRL), being one of the facility's main conventional weapons projects. Development was originally undertaken to eliminate dependence on importing expensive foreign systems. Various versions of the Anza are currently in service with the Pakistan Army, with the Mk-III version being the most recent. The Anza is also offered for export, Malaysia being its only known export customer after receiving 100 Anza Mk-I in 2002 and, later, a further 500 Anza Mk-II systems.
Development And Design Of Anza Missile :-
Some sources state that the Anza Mk-II was co-developed in a joint project by Pakistan and China. Pervez Musharraf has stated Pakistan cooperated with North Korea in the production of conventional weapons when it developed the Anza. The Anza Mk-I entered service with the Pakistan Army in January 1990, followed by the Anza Mk-II in September 1994. Serial production of Anza Mk-III for the Pakistan Army was announced in 2006.
In recent years, Pakistan has advertised the Anza series for export, displaying it at the International Defense Exhibition (IDEX) 2007 event in the United Arab Emirates and at the IDEAS 2008 defense exhibition in Pakistan.
Training Aids And Simulator :-
The Mk-II is known to have the ATS-II Training Simulator included, which consists of a set of four Mk-II training missiles, four firing units, simulated ground batteries, cable interconnectors, PC-based control, monitoring and scoring unit with a target simulator made up of an infrared electric bulb moving along an overhead wire.
The High Speed Aerial Target Drone, or HISAT-DK, is a high speed, low maintenance target drone that can be used in training operators to use the Anza. It is manned by a four-man crew using Optical Tracking Pod devices. The drones can be used for MANPAD training, though they are also used for other purposes, such as artillery fire support training.
Variants Of Anza Missiles :-
Anza Mk-I - The first MANPADS produced by Pakistan for use by the Pakistan Army. Development is believed to have been assisted by China and the design is similar to the HN-5B MANPADS. A British source the Anza is a copy of the SA-7 Grail. Approximately 1000 Anza Mk-I were produced between 1989-1998.
Anza Mk-II - A third generation MANPADS, believed to be based on the Chinese QW-1 MANPADS Uses a dual-band, cross-scan infra-red homing seeker to counter decoy flares. Also believed to use American missile technology. Approximately 1650 Anza Mk-II were produced between 1994-2012.
Anza Mk-III - Believed to be based on the Chinese QW-2 MANPADS, modifications made to meet Pakistan Army requirements include increased range upto 5 kms, improved sensors and a new firing unit similar to the Russian 9K38 Igla MANPADS. All-aspect attack capability and improved ECCM capability. It also has a vehicle-mounted launcher variant.
Operational History Of Anza Missile System :-
On 27 May 1999, the Anza Mk-II was used to attack Indian aircraft during the Kargil conflict with India. A MiG-27 of the Indian Air Force was shot down by Pakistan Army Air Defense forces. The MiG-27 was searching for a MiG-21 pilot who ejected when its aircraft experienced an engine flameout.
In December 2002, it was reported that Indian soldiers of the 24 Rashtriya Rifles found an Anza Mk-I in a militant hideout near the Line of Control in Kupwara, Kashmir. An Anza system had previously been found at a militant hideout by Indian Army soldiers in 2001. Pakistan denied supplying Anza systems to the militants. Reports have been circulated that an Anza MANPADS was fired at an Indian Air Force Antonov An-32 in 2002 over the Line of Control; the plane was able to land safely.
In 2004, Saudi Assistant Minister for Defense Prince Khaled ibn Sultan of Saudi Arabia and Defense Minister Rao Sikandar Iqbal of Pakistan had been in talks for joint production of the Anza.
In 2008, the Pakistan Army conducted exercises with the Anza Mk-II in a semi-desert area near Muzaffargarh in response to covert attacks on targets in north-west Pakistan by American unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), also known as drones. In November 2008, the chief of the Pakistan Air Force told reporters that his forces are fully capable of shooting down the American drones but it was the responsibility of the government to decide whether the drone attacks were stopped through diplomacy or military engagement. In the 2010 Azm-e-Nau 3 exercises, the air defense of Pakistan Army exhibited accurate targeting of enemy's aircraft while in its attacking position, with a pinpoint precision through shoulder operated system of Anza Missiles.
_::: Comparison Of Capabilities Of Anza 1, Anza 2 and Anza 3 :::_

Anza MK-1 Anza MK-2 Anza MK-3
Length(Missile and Booster) 1.44 Meters 1.447 Meters 1.59 Meters
Weight(Launcher and Missile) 15 Kilograms 16.5 Kilograms 18 Kilograms
Missile Weight 9.8 Kilograms 10.68 Kilograms 11.32 Kilograms
Propulsion Solid Fuel Rocket Motor
Guidance System Uncooled PBS Passive Infra-Red Homing Seeker Cooled PBS Passive Infra-Red Homing Seeker Dual Band Infra-Red Homing Seeker
Warhead HE Fragmentation(Containing 0.37 Kilograms HE)With Contact and Graze Fusing HE Fragmentation(Containing 0.55 Kilograms HE)With Contact and Graze Fusing HE Fragmentation(Containing 1.42 Kilograms HE)With Contact and Graze Fusing
Average Cruise Speed 500 Meters Per Second 600 Meters Per Second Greater Than 600 Meters Per Second
Maximum Maneuvering 6g 16g
Self Destruction Time 14 To 17 Seconds 14 To 18 Seconds
Slant Range 1200 To 4200 Meters 500 To 5000 Meters 6000 Meters
Altitude 50 Meters To 2300 Meters 30 Meters To 4000 Meters 10 Meters To 3500 Meters
Weapon Reaction Time 5 Seconds 3.5 Seconds 3.5 Seconds
Ready From The March 10 Seconds 10 Seconds 10 Seconds
Battery Life 40 Seconds 50 Seconds 50 Seconds

Monday, June 16, 2014

H-4 SOW Of Pakistan Air Force

The H-4 SOW (Stand-Off Weapon) is a precision-guided glide bomb manufactured by Pakistan and deployed by the Pakistan Air Force, capable of striking targets at stand-off range. It has a terminal guidance system based on an infrared imaging seeker, which identifies the target during the final stage of flight. Designed to hit targets out to 120 km, the bomb may have the capability to evade radar.
History Of This Missile Development :-
According to Pakistani press reports, the H-4 glide bomb was created by Pakistan's National Engineering and Scientific Commission (NESCOM), working in collaboration with the Pakistan Missile Organization and Air Weapons Complex in Pakistan, by modifying the design of the South African Denel T-Darter beyond visual range (BVR) air-to-air missile. A lighter version of the H-4 has also been produced, the H-2 SOW, which has a stated range of 60 km.

JF-17 Thunder Missile
JF-17 Thunder Missile

Three successful tests were conducted, the last one in 2003, which led to field deployment on the Dassault Mirage III and Mirage V strike fighters of the Pakistan Air Force. It has also been stated that the H-4 will be integrated with the PAF's new multi-role combat aircraft, the JF-17, which is replacing the ageing fleet of Mirage III and Mirage V aircraft. All Pakistani JF-17 fighters, from the initial JF-17 Block 1 model to the final Block 3 version, will be capable of launching the H-4.

The H-4's stated range of 120 km and its glide bomb design has led to speculation that it may be a copy or a Pakistani variant of the Denel Raptor II glide bomb, which is also guided by an infrared imaging seeker and has a range of 120 km. There has been much confusion regarding the actual identity of the H-4. Many Indian sources state that the weapon is actually a beyond visual range air-to-air missile. However, Pakistani sources state that the H-4 is a "beyond visual range bomb".

Sunday, June 15, 2014

Hatf IX Missile Of Pakistani Armed Forces

The Hatf IX ("Vengeance IX") or Nasr  is a solid fuelled tactical ballistic missile system developed by Pakistan's National Development Complex (NDC). It is referred to by Pakistan's Inter Services Public Relations organization as a "Multi Tube Ballistic Missile" because the launch vehicle carries multiple missiles. Its existence was revealed after a test in 2011 and it appears to have entered service after further testing in 2013.
Background :-
Hatf IX Of Pakistan Army Approaching Target
Hatf IX Of Pakistan Army Approaching Target

According to defense analysts and missile technology experts the system appears to have been developed as a "low-yield battlefield deterrent" targeted at "mechanized forces like armed brigades and divisions". Therefore it is believed by analysts that the system is deployed to deter and respond to India's "Cold Start" doctrine.  Pakistan's Inter-Services Public Relations agency says the Hatf IX was developed to "add deterrence value... at shorter ranges... with high accuracy, shoot and scoot attributes" for "quick response."

Design :-
The Hatf IX Nasr is a ballistic missile which carries a sub-kiloton nuclear warhead out to a range of 60 km (37.3 mi). It is believed to be derived from the WS-2 Weishi Rockets system developed by China's Sichuan Aerospace Corporation. Four missiles are carried on the s
ame Chinese-origin 8x8 transporter erector launcher (TEL) as the Pakistan Army's A-100E 300mm Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS), a Chinese version of the BM-30 Smerch.
Capabilities :-
The missile can carry nuclear warheads of appropriate yield, with high accuracy. It also has an in flight maneuver capability and is specially designed to defeat all known anti-tactical missile defense systems. It also has the ability to fire at a target and immediately relocate to another position to avoid enemy counter-fire. This was confirmed by by Mansoor Ahmed, of Quaid-e-Azam University’s Department of Defence and Strategic Studies. "Its in-flight maneuverability is being improved to defeat potential Indian missile defenses against artillery rockets and short-range ballistic missiles, such as the Israeli Iron Dome system.” He further went on to say that the system is “fully integrated into the centralized command-and-control structure through round the clock situational awareness in a digitized network centric environment to the decision makers at National Command Center. Nasr is obviously India-specific and the salvo launch capability is a key ability in stopping Indian armored thrusts into Pakistani territory."
History :-
The missile's existence was first reported after a test-firing on 19 April 2011. A 4-missile salvo fired on the 5th October 2013 is believed to have marked the conclusion of the testing program and the system's likely entry into service.

Thursday, June 12, 2014

Hatf 8 Ra'ad Missile Of Pakistan Air Force

The Ra'ad is an air-launched cruise missile (ALCM) developed by Pakistan and operational with the Pakistan Air Force (PAF). Though initially launched from a PAF Dassault Mirage III ROSE combat aircraft during testing, the missile is planned to be integrated with and launched from other PAF platforms such as the JF-17 combat aircraft. The Ra'ad's current range is stated to be 350 km.
Hatf 8 Ra'ad Missile Of Pakistan Air Force
Hatf 8 Ra'ad Missile Of Pakistan Air Force
Ra'ad is designed to attack fixed enemy installations (such as radar posts, command nodes and stationary surface to air missile launchers) at stand-off range, keeping the launching aircraft away from enemy air Defense systems. The missile can also be armed with a 10-35 kt nuclear warhead. The accuracy of the missile is reported to be comparable to Pakistan's Babur cruise missile, which has "pinpoint accuracy" according to official sources.
Development And Design :-
After a successful test-launch in 2005 of the Babur (also known as Hatf VII), Pakistan's first cruise missile, it was stated by officials that the Babur would be modified to be launched from airborne platforms. But the Ra'ad, developed by Pakistan's Air Weapons Complex and NESCOM, appears to be an entirely new missile, as is evident by the new name and a new official designation of Hatf VIII.
The Ra'ad's airframe is designed with stealth capability, provided by the shape of the airframe and the materials used in its construction, to give the missile a low detection probability and allow it to penetrate enemy air Defense systems. Designed to carry conventional or nuclear warheads, the missile would most likely be used for precision air strikes on enemy command centres, radars, surface to air missile launchers, ballistic missile launchers and stationary warships.
Operational History Of Ra’ad Cruise Missile :-
Ra'ad was tested for the first time on 25 August 2007. An official press-release by the military at the time of the test declared that the missile gave Pakistan Air Force a "strategic standoff capability on land and at sea," indicating that Ra'ad may be launched at sea-based targets such as ships, as well as land-based targets.
On 8 May 2008, Ra'ad was tested for the second time, this time fired from a Dassault Mirage III ROSE fighter of the Pakistan Air Force (PAF). A third successful test of Ra'ad (ALCM) was carried out on 29 April 2011, this time again fired from a Dassault Mirage fighter of Pakistan Air force. Fourth test of Ra'ad (ALCM) was carried out on 30 May 2012.

Wednesday, June 11, 2014

Hatf III ( Ghaznavi) Ballsitic Missile Of Pakistan Army

Rawalpindi - April 22, 2014
Hatf III ( Ghaznavi) Ballsitic Missile Of Pakistan Army
Hatf III ( Ghaznavi) Ballsitic Missile Of Pakistan Army
Pakistan today conducted a successful training launch of Short Range Surface to Surface Ballistic Missile Hatf III (Ghaznavi), which can carry nuclear and conventional warheads to a range of 290 kilometers. The successful launch concluded the Field Training Exercise of Strategic Missile Group of Army Strategic Forces Command.
The Training Launch was witnessed by the Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee, General Rashad Mahmood, Director General Strategic Plans Division, Lieutenant General Zubair Mahmood Hayat, Commander Army Strategic Forces Command, Lieutenant General Obaid Ullah Khan, Chairman NESCOM, Mr Muhammad Irfan Burney and other senior military officials and scientists.
Addressing the troops in the exercise area,  Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee commended the troops on achieving technical and operational excellence in operating the state of the art weapon system. He expressed his satisfaction over the training goals achieved during the exercise and expected that the officers and men entrusted with the task of deterring aggression would continue to maintain professional excellence.
The Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee, General Rashad Mahmood also congratulated all the Scientists and Engineers for  the successful launch of Ghaznavi Missile, as another mile stone which has further strengthened the defence potential of Pakistan besides assuring peace in the region.
The successful test has also been warmly appreciated by the President and Prime Minister of Pakistan who congratulated the participating troops, scientists and engineers on their outstanding achievement.

Tuesday, June 10, 2014

Ghaznavi Missile System Of Pakistan

The Hatf-III named Ghaznavi Missile is a short range ballistic missile (SRBM) with an optimal range of 290 km, produced by Pakistan and named after the 11th century Muslim Turkic conqueror Mahmood of Ghazni. The missile has a length of 9.64m, diameter of 0.99 m, launch weight of 5256 kg and is powered by a single stage solid fuel rocket motor. It is believed to be based on a Chinese design, the M-11 (NATO reporting name: CSS-7)
Operational History Of Ghaznavi Missile System :-
Ghaznavi Missile System Of Pakistan
Ghaznavi Missile System Of Pakistan
The Ghaznavi was reported to have been test-launched in late September/early October 2003 and was reported to be ready for service in March 2004. Another test launch occurred in late November 2004, with two more on 9 December 2006 another on 13 February 2008 and 8 May 2010; the 2008 test was believed to have concluded a winter training exercise of Pakistan's Army Strategic Force Command (ASFC). In May 2012, one more successful test of the missile was conducted as part of a training exercise.
Naming Controversy Created By Afghan Government :-
In February 2006, the Government of Afghanistan delivered a complain to Pakistan over naming its lethal ballistic missiles after Afghan kings and rulers (i.e. Abdali, Ghaznavid and Ghauri), arguing that their names should be bracketed with academic, cultural and peace-promoting institutions, not with tools of destruction and killing. However, Pakistan declined to change the missiles' names stating that these Muslim rulers are considered heroes in Pakistan as well, and naming missiles after them is not controversial.

Monday, June 9, 2014

Baktar Shikan

The HJ-8 or Hongjian-8 is a second generation tube-launched, optically tracked, wire-guided anti-tank missile system which was originally deployed by the People's Liberation Army since the late 1980s. Pakistan produces this missile system under license as the Baktar-Shikan at Kahuta Research Laboratories. It is able to defeat explosive reactive armour (ERA).
Development Of Baktar Shkan :-
In 1970, Chinese armored corps first proposed to develop a successor to HJ-73 and this was later approved, designated as the AFT-8 or HJ-8. The missile was jointly developed by Research Institute 203 and 282nd Factory, but the program was interrupted by political turmoil. The key designers were Wang Xingzhi and Zhao Jiazheng, who developed the missile. Development was not completed until early 1980s, after the end of the Cultural Revolution. After receiving state certification the missile entered mass-production in 1984. HJ-8 is an optically tracked, wire guided ATGM. A series of upgraded variants have been developed since. HJ-8 and its variants are manufactured by NORINCO's Factory 282 (Jiangnan Machine Factory), Factory 5618 (Hunan South China Photoelectricity Instrument Plant) of China and Kahuta Research Laboratories of Pakistan.
Baktar Shikan Missile Of Pakistan At Display
The HJ-8 series can be considered the Chinese equivalent of the American BGM-71 TOW and Franco-German MILAN / Euromissile HOT anti-tank missiles. HJ-8 is a tube-launched, optically tracked and wire-guided missile system armed with a HEAT anti-tank warhead. The HJ-8 is a combination many experts believe of three Western antitank missile systems obtained from nations in the Middle East and Asia that were then examined and reverse engineered and modified: the tripod from the US BGM-71 TOW; the tracker-control unit from the French/German MILAN; and the missile from the UK Swingfire.
There are numerous improved models following the original HJ-8, designated HJ-8A to HJ-8H, each incorporating improved features over the previous model. HJ-8E entered service in mid-1990. The HJ-8E anti-tank missile weighs 24.5 kg, has a range of up to 4,000 m, and can also defeat explosive reactive armour (ERA). The latest variant is the HJ-8H.
Designed to be both dependable and accurate, HJ-8 is now the standard anti-tank armament of the WZ-9, Mi-17, and Gazelle (replacing the original Euromissile HOT first carried) helicopter gunships of the PLA.
Turret Launch Platform :-
A launching platform that can be installed on armoured fighting vehicles has been developed by Norinco for use as an HJ-8 launching platform, the SW-1 one-man turret. The all-steel welded SW-1 turret weighs 1,750 kg and can be installed on various tracked or wheeled vehicles. The turret is stated to be immune to 0.50 caliber armour-piercing rounds at close range (100 meters) and protection is further increased when add-on armour is installed. The turret can traverse 360 degrees and be elevated -40 to +60 degrees. The fire-control system, based on that of HJ-8H, is internally mounted.
The primary armament of SW-1 includes four HJ-8H ATGM, with two mounted in the rear location on each side of the turret. The secondary armament comprises a 30 mm main gun and a coaxial 0.30 caliber machine gun. A variety of ammo can be used and the maximum rate of fire of the main gun is around 6 rounds per second, and automatic fire can be selected at various rates. The 30-mm gun is claimed to be effective against ground targets up to 4 km away and aerial targets at 2 km, while the HJ-8H missile is effective against ground targets at ranges of 4 km away, and against low and slow aerial targets at the same range. A follow-on model that is remotely operated weighing 1.4 ton has completed its development and entered Chinese service, designed by the same designer, Wu Lixin. Like its predecessor, this unmanned model was also first tested by using HJ-73C ATGM. The unmanned version carries 160 rounds of 30 mm ammunition.

Sunday, June 8, 2014

Babur Hatf 7 Missile Of Pakistan

Babur (named after the first Mughal Emperor Zahir ud-Din Babur), also designated Hatf VII, is the first land attack cruise missile to be developed by Pakistan.
Launched from ground-based transporter erector launchers, warships and submarines, the Babur can be armed with a conventional or nuclear warhead and has a reported range of 700 km (430 mi). The missile is designed to avoid radar detection and penetrate enemy air defenses. Serial production of the Babur started in October 2005.
Origin :-
It has been speculated that Babur is based on the BGM-109 Tomahawk cruise missile, after six Tomahawks crash-landed on Pakistani territory in 2001 during US airstrikes on targets in Afghanistan, and its design seems to show this influence. The propulsion system appears to approximate that of BGM-109 Tomahawk according to videos of its launch. However, there is no confirmation of this and the Pakistani missile development organization NESCOM has rejected this theory.
Babur is believed to have been developed in response to reports that India was planning to acquire Patriot missiles from the US, in order to set up a ballistic missile defense system to counter Pakistan's arsenal of ballistic missiles.
Design :-
The Babur's airframe is made up of a tubular fuselage, with a pair of folded wings attached to the middle section and the empennage at the rear along with the propulsion system. Propelled by a jet engine (either turbofan or turbojet), the Babur has a maximum speed of approximately 550 mph. On launch, a booster rocket provides additional thrust to accelerate the missile away from the launch vehicle. After the launch the wings unfold, the booster rocket is jettisoned and the jet engine started.

Babur Hatf 7 Missile Of Pakistan
Babur Hatf 7 Missile Of Pakistan Ejecting From MLV Launch Vehicle
Guidance :-

The Babur's guidance system uses a combination of inertial navigation systems, terrain contour matching (TERCOM) and GPS satellite guidance. The guidance system reportedly gives the missile pinpoint accuracy. GPS access is not guaranteed under hostile conditions so the latest production models have also reportedly incorporated the Russian GLONASS. Future software and hardware updates could include the European Union's GALILEO and China's Beidou navigation system.
Features :-
The missile is stated to have a high degree of maneuverability, allowing it to "hug" the terrain, and "near-stealth" capabilities. Terrain hugging ability helps the missile avoid enemy radar detection by utilizing "terrain masking", giving Babur the capability to penetrate enemy air defence systems undetected and survive until reaching the target. The missile's design features can be compared with the American BGM-109 Tomahawk cruise missile.
More advanced versions of the Babur are under development. Later versions are planned to have a range of 1000 km and be capable of being launched from Pakistan Navy submarines such as the Agosta 90B Khalid class.
Operational History Of Babur Cruise Missile :-
On August 12, 2005, Pakistan publicly announced that it had successfully test fired a nuclear-capable cruise missile with a range of 500 km. The missile was launched from a land based transporter erector launcher (TEL). The unannounced launch on 11 August 2005 caught much of the international community by surprise due to the technically advanced nature of the missile, as well as the fact that Pakistan did not notify India of its test-firing as the existing notification agreement is limited to ballistic missile testing only.
On March 22, 2007, Pakistan test-fired an upgraded version of the Babur with an extended range of 700 km. Pakistan carried out two more tests of Babur on July 26, 2007 and December 11, 2007. On May 6, 2009, Pakistan conducted another test-firing but did not announce the event until 9 May 2009, citing political reasons.
On October 28, 2011. Pakistan successfully test fire its Babur Cruise missile and has a range of 700 kilometer. The ISPR said Babur was capable of carrying conventional and atomic warheads. A special feature of this launch was the validation of a new multi tube Missile Launch Vehicle (MLV) during the test. The three tube MLV enhances manifold the targeting and deployment options in the conventional and nuclear modes. With its shoot-and-scoot capability, the MLV provides a major force multiplier effect for target employment and survivability.
On June 6, 2012 Pakistan conducted a successful test-fire of the multi-tube, indigenously developed Cruise Missile Hatf-VII (Babur), which can carry both nuclear and conventional warheads with stealth capabilities. It was the third test-fire conducted by Pakistan in the recent past, of different capacity and load. “It can carry both nuclear and conventional warheads and has stealth capabilities,” said an official announcement of the ISPR. “It also incorporates the most modern cruise missile technology of Terrain Contour Matching (Tercom) and Digital Scene Matching and Area Co-relation (DSMAC), which enhances its precision and effectiveness manifolds.”

Friday, June 6, 2014

Shaheen 3 Missile System

The Shaheen 3 is a Pakistani intermediate-range ballistic missile speculated to be in development. It is a member of the solid-fueled Shaheen series missile family and is envisioned to replace the less advanced liquid-fueled Ghauri-III system whose development was canceled in May 2000 according to Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan, Pakistan's former top scientist. The Shaheen series systems are developed jointly by Pakistan's SUPARCO and the NESCOM and its subsidiary, NDC.

Shaheen 3 Missile System
Shaheen 2 Missile Of Pakistan Army

Thursday, June 5, 2014

Shaheen 2 Missile

The Shaheen 2 is a ballistic missile developed by NESCOM's National Defense Complex (NDC) of Pakistan. The Shaheen missile series is named after a falcon that lives in the mountains of Pakistan. The missile is considered to be Pakistan's equivalent to the US Pershing II.
Description :-
The Shaheen 2 is a, a longer ranged variant of the Shaheen 1 missile. It is currently the most advanced ballistic missile in service with the Pakistani Armed Forces. It uses a two-stage solid propellant rocket motor designed to carry conventional or nuclear payloads. It is transported and launched by a 6-axle transporter erector launcher (TEL). According to U.S. based analysts, a satellite image of a Pakistani missile production facility taken on 5 June 2005 shows fifteen 6-axle TELs being fitted out for the Shaheen 2 missile.

Shaheen 2 was successfully test fired for the first time on March 9, 2004. At that time, the National Engineering and Science Commission (NESCOM) chairman Samar Mubarakmand stated that the missile was a two-stage rocket with diameter of 1.4 m, length of 17.5 m, weight of 25 tons and a range of 2,500 km.
Re Entry Vehicle Of Shaheen 2 Missile System :-
The re-entry vehicle carried by the Shaheen 2 missile has a mass of 1050 kg, which includes the mass of a nuclear warhead and a terminal guidance system.
Shaheen 2 Missile
Shaheen 2 Missile Of Pakistan Army
This re-entry vehicle is unlike that of the Shaheen 1 in that it has four moving delta control fins at the rear and small solid/liquid-propellant side thrust motors, which are used to orientate the re-entry vehicle after the booster stage is depleted or before re-entry to improve accuracy by providing stabilization during the terminal phase. This can also be used to fly evasive manoeuvres, making it problematic for existing anti-ballistic missile (ABM) systems to successfully intercept the missile. The Shaheen 2 warhead may change its trajectory several times during re-entry and during the terminal phase, effectively preventing ABM radar systems from pre-calculating intercept points. The re-entry vehicle is also stated to utilize a GPS satellite guidance system to provide updates on its position, further improving its accuracy and reducing the CEP.
Foreign sources claim the missile to have an accuracy of 350 m CEP based on speculation that the design is the same or similar to one of several Chinese systems such as the M-18 or DF-25. However, according to a press video shown by NDC at the IDEAS 2004 Defense exhibition in Pakistan, the missile can achieve "surgical precision". This has led to speculation that Shaheen 2 incorporates a satellite navigation update system and/or a post separation attitude correction system to provide terminal course correction, which "may indicate a CEP of much less than 300 m." According to Harsh Pant, reader of international relations at the Defense Studies Department of King's College London, "the current capability of Pakistani missiles is built around radar seekers."
Future Developments :-
Since deployment of the 2,500 km range Shaheen 2, a multiple independently targeted re-entry vehicle (MIRV) system is under development which may be first fielded on the Shaheen 2.

Wednesday, June 4, 2014

The Ghauri-III Of Pakistan Strategic Forces

The Ghauri-III was an intermediate-range ballistic missile which was cancelled during its development stage. The Ghauri-III reportedly started development around 1999 with a planned range of over 3,000 km. Few details were known, but Ghauri III was presumed to be road mobile, being transported and launched by a transporter erector launcher. The warhead, like other Pakistani ballistic missiles, was believed to be either conventional or nuclear and guided by an inertial guidance system. The missile never entered service.
In May 2004 it was rumoured that the missile would be tested in June of that year. No test occurred in that year. Similarly in 2009 it was again reported that missile would be tested in August of that year but again no test took place.
Little public information was available about the missile until it was reported on 28 May 2011 that, according to the memoirs of Abdul Qadeer Khan published that day, the funding for the development of the Ghauri III missile system was stopped in May 2000 by then President Pervez Musharraf. Around 50% of the missile's development project was completed by that time.

Ghauri I Missile System
Approaching Target

Monday, June 2, 2014

Ghauri-II Missile Of Pak Army

Ghauri I Missile System
Approaching Target

The Ghauri-II is a medium-range ballistic missile (MRBM). A longer ranged variant of the Ghauri-I, it was developed by increasing the length of the motor assembly and using improved propellants.

Development :-
The Ghauri-I started development at the Khan Research Laboratories in 1993, with the first flight test occurring in 1998. The first flight test of the Ghauri-II took place in 1999 and the missile was handed over to the armed forces. Flight testing and improvements for both missiles continued into 2004.
Design :-
The Ghauri-II missile has a maximum range of 2,000 km (1,200 mi). It is 18.0 m in length, has a diameter of 1.35 m and a launch weight of 17,800 kg. Its payload is a single separating warhead weighing 1,200 kg, or as low as 750 kg for use at its maximum range. This may used to carry a 250 kg warhead of a 15 to 30 KT yield nuclear, HE or sub-munitions warhead. The missile uses a single-stage liquid propellant rocket motor.
The Ghauri-II design improves accuracy by a employing mechanisms that spin the single booster stage and warhead combination approximately 10 seconds before the termination of the powered flight phase at 110 seconds. At this point, the warhead is then separated from the booster stage to fly on a re-entry trajectory that remains stable to its target, greatly enhancing the missile's accuracy. With the addition of GPS targeting the warhead accuracy is further enhanced. Like most Pakistani missile systems, transporter erector launcher (TEL) vehicles are used to transport and launch Ghauri II.

Saturday, May 31, 2014

Ghauri I Missile System Of Pakistan

The Hatf 5 "Ghauri" is a medium-range ballistic missile (MRBM) developed by Khan Research Laboratories of Pakistan. The missile uses a single stage liquid fuel rocket motor to carry a payload of 700 kg to a range of 1,500 km. Two variants of the Ghauri were produced under the Pakistani missile research and development program and the development of a third was cancelled. The Ghauri-II uses increased motor assembly length and improved propellants for an increased range of 2,300 km (1,400 mi). The missile is named after Shahabuddin Muhammad Ghauri, while the "Hatf" designation originates from the name of the sword or lance of Muhammad.
Development and Production History :-
The Hatf 5 is believed to be based on North Korea's Rodong 1 (also known as Nodong 1) design. According to a Pakistani analyst the original design was flawed and the missile burned up on re-entry during its first test flight. The missile system eventually entered service after being heavily re-engineered by Pakistan's NESCOM and National Development Complex research and development organizations. According to the Federation of Atomic Scientists the Hatf 5 Ghauri is believed to inherit a warhead spin-up mechanism from the Nodong 1). It is stated that this feature could improve accuracy up to 190 m CEP, although this is still debatable. The mechanism involved using steering vanes to spin the missile after 100 seconds of flight time. After 110 seconds the rocket motor stops and the warhead separates from the rocket motor. The warhead then enters a more stable re-entry trajectory due to the spinning motion. Warhead accuracy would be further enhanced if the Ghauri's inertial navigation system is capable of being updated by GPS satellite signals.
Ghauri I Missile System
Approaching Target
Liquid fuel ballistic missiles are incapable of storing fuel for any long period of time. The Ghauri requires refuelling for several hours before launch and this makes it vulnerable to a first strike. It is believed that this is why Pakistan has not pursued liquid fuelled missiles other than the Ghauri and Ghauri 2. It also makes it less likely that the Hatf 5 missiles in Pakistani service would be armed with a nuclear warheads. Although it has been stated that it is capable of being loaded with "all types" of warheads.
Pakistan's latest solid-fuelled Shaheen 1A is believed to be an alternate missile system for the Hatf 5 Ghauri. However it has been stated that the Ghauri has advantages in lower cost than solid fuel missiles. This is advantageous when testing launch and control systems. It has been speculated that the Hatf 5 design may serve as a starting point for a Pakistani space launch vehicle.
Operational History :-
The Ghauri was first test-fired on 6 April 1998 from the Tilla Test-firing Range near Malute, Jhelum, about 76 miles south of the capital Islamabad. It was fired from a mobile launcher and travelled 1,100 km (680 mi) in a flight lasting 9 minutes and 58 seconds. At the time it was stated that the missile hit its designated target in the desert of Balochistan. It has since been revealed that this first test was not a success because the missile burned up during the re-entry phase of its flight.
The missile has since been tested in December 2010 and November 2012. The November 2012 launch was performed by a Strategic Missile Group of the Army Strategic Force Command. The test-flight was monitored by the new Strategic Command and Control Support System (SCCSS) and is believed to have been geared towards testing the SCCSS rather than the missile itself.

Friday, May 30, 2014

Shaheen 1 SRBM Of Pakistan Army

The Shaheen 1, is a codename of a missile system program that was developed by the joint venture of NESCOM and the National Defense Complex (NDC). It is dedicated and named after a species of Falcon found in the mountains of Pakistan. The Shaheen I is also designated Hatf IV. Both the Shaheen I and Shaheen IA are Pakistan's equivalent to the United States Pershing I and Pershing IA series.
Description and Design Specifications :-
        Shaheen 1 :-
Shaheen I is a short-range ballistic missile (SRBM) with an optimal range of 750 km and propelled by a two stage solid fuel rocket motor. The Shaheen 1 can deliver either a conventional or a nuclear payload much faster than liquid fuelled missiles such as the Ghauri because it does not need to be fuelled before launch, reducing deployment time significantly.
The Shaheen I is believed to be very accurate; Pakistani military sources state a CEP of 25 to 50 m can be achieved, partly due to a "post-separation attitude correction system." This system would allow the missile to modify its trajectory, improving accuracy and, along with the stealthy warhead shaping, giving some capability to evade missile defense systems. It is based on terminal guidance system technology, which improves warhead accuracy by firing small thrusters to adjust the warhead's trajectory and uses satellite navigation systems to help find the target. Such systems would allow the Shaheen to be used against strategic targets without requiring a nuclear warhead to ensure the target's destruction. According to other sources, the CEP of Shaheen I is 200 meters.
        Shaheen 1A :-
On 25 April 2012, Pakistan successfully test-launched an upgraded Shaheen I called Shaheen 1A. The military said in a statement that the Shaheen 1A is a medium-range ballistic missile. It is an improved version of the Shaheen 1 with better accuracy and double the range of its predecessor.
The Pakistani military initially did not publicly reveal the range of the missile which lead to media speculation of the true range of the missile. According to a defense analyst in Islamabad, this missile could be equipped with warheads designed to evade missile defense systems. The speed of the Shaheen 1A also provides an extremely high impact speed for nearby targets, enabling it to avoid any anti-ballistic missile defenses that may develop in the immediate region. A western official in Islamabad mentioned that the Shaheen 1A missile seems to have an improved ability to strike at its targets. It also has a more powerful engine, which means that it travels at scramjet speeds and can strike at longer distances than Shaheen-1.
On 25 April 2012, the ISPR revealed more information about the missile. The missile weight is approximately 10,000 kg, slightly heavier than its predecessor and can carry a single 1000 kg warhead. In addition, the Shaheen IA primarily contains sophisticated automated refueling and advanced stealth technology features that were not present in its previous version to avoid detections from radars. All three Shaheen missiles, Shaheen I, Shaheen 1A and Shaheen II are reportedly equipped with the latest PSAC (Post-Separation Attitude Correction) system. This is a unique feature which consists of small thrusters that can adjust the warhead trajectory for greater accuracy and evading anti-ballistic missile defense systems. The features of the missile could also serve as a test bed of features which could be implemented on the yet to be deployed Shaheen III.
Shaheen 1 SRBM Of Pakistan Army
Shaheen 1 SRBM Of Pakistan Army
Ready For Launch
In stark contrast of the claims made by Pakistani authorities in Islamabad about how Shaheen 1A is an "upgraded" or "improved" version of the preceding missile in the series, the Scientists of the Indian National Institute of Advanced Studies (NIAS) that closely monitors the progress of nuclear weapons technology, didn't find sufficient amount of upgradation or improvement to merit a new test on its own. This in their opinion was a much anticipated "tit-for-tat" launch.
The Scientists Concluded That :-
“There are no changes evident in the stage configuration and the main aerodynamic fins at the end of the missile and the exhaust look similar. The overall warhead length is comparable with the other images...[other changes to control and avionics systems] do not appear to be greatly significant... and do not have much impact on the missile range. Our assessment of the range of Shaheen 1 was 673 km for a launch from Islamabad in a south eastern (Azimuth 135 degrees) direction with a 1,000 kg re-entry vehicle. We do not find any evidence from the image put out by Pakistan to change this assessment. Longer range is however possible if Pakistan has reduced the missile throw-mass to below 1,000 kg.”
Only minor change in the missile according to NIAS was a shorter 1.6m long re-entry vehicle that was 2.3 m in earlier versions.
Hatf-IV Shaheen 1 :-
On April 10, 2013 Pakistan conducted a successful launch of intermediate range ballistic missile Hatf-IV (Shaheen-1). The Hatf-IV (Shaheen-1) missile incorporates a series of improvements in range and technical parameters of the existing warhead and is capable of carrying nuclear and conventional warheads to a range of 900 kilometers.
Operational History Of Shaheen 1 Missile :-
The Shaheen I was first test-launched on April 15, 1999. Two test-launches of a second version with greater range and improved accuracy were carried out in October 2002 and two more in October 2003. A batch of Shaheen I missiles, enough to equip one regiment/battery, was handed over to the Pakistan Army in 2003 along with mobile launchers. Another was tested on 8 May 2010 The Shaheen 1A was test fired on 25 April 2012.

Wednesday, May 28, 2014

Yaum-e-Takbeer 28 May 1998

Chagai 1 is the code name given to the five underground nuclear tests conducted by Pakistan at 1515 hrs PST on 28 May 1998. The tests were performed at the Ras Koh Hills in the Chagai District of the Balochistan Province of Pakistan.
The Chagai 1 the first public nuclear tests operation of Pakistan is considered a milestone in the history of Pakistan that was conducted in a direct response to India's second nuclear tests, Operation Shakti, on 11 and 13 May 1998. Nuclear weapon testing by Pakistan and India resulted in a variety of economic sanctions on both states by a number of major powers, particularly the United States and Japan. With the performance of the simultaneous atomic testing of the five nuclear devices, Pakistan, thus became the seventh nuclear power in the world to successfully develop and publicly test nuclear weapons, despite the international fury.
Birth Of Atomic Program Of Pakistan :-
The country's uneasy relationship with India, Afghanistan and the former Soviet Union explains its policy to become a nuclear power as part of its defence strategy. Since their independence from United Kingdom on August 1947, India and Pakistan had fought two declared wars over the disputed Kashmir territory; first war being fought in 1947-48 and second being fought in 1965.
Economic embargo placed by the United States, alliance with the West endangering the national security of the country, and the offset the country’s conventional inferiority against India and to counter the advancing Indian nuclear program after 1965, the country put efforts to launch a classified and clandestine atomic bomb project. Shortly after the war, the country acquired its first research reactor, PARR-I, from the United States and an international research institute, Pinstech, located in Nilore city in the Islamabad Capital Venue. In 1969, after successfully negotiating with the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) to supply Pakistan with a nuclear fuel reprocessing site capable of extracting 360g of weapons-grade plutonium annually. The PAEC chose five top scientists to receive training to gain expertise in nuclear fuel cycle as well as weapons-grade and reactor-grade plutonium. Agreements were made with Canada, France and the British consortium companies to expand the nuclear power infrastructure as part of the peaceful nuclear policy.
1971 War And Atomic Weapons Projects :-
The main turning point in Pakistan's decision-making was the 1971 war with India which led the loss of provisional state, East-Pakistan, which was succeeded as Bangladesh. Lasting only less than two weeks, 90,000 were taken as prisoners of war, including Pakistani soldiers and their East Pakistani civilian supporters. 79,676 prisoners were uniformed personnel, of which 55,692 were Army, 16,354 Paramilitary, 5,296 Police, 1000 Navy and 800 PAF around were taken as POWs by India as well as the 5,000 sq mi (13,000 km2) country's territory which held by India after the war. Although the territory and the POWs were returned to Pakistan, it left deep scars in Pakistan's civil society as well as leaving the political and military misery. The armed liberation war and the 1971 war was an unforgettable experience and lesson to political and military establishment. For Pakistan, it was a decisive defeat, a psychological setback that came from a defeat at the hands of intense rival India. Pakistan lost a significant part of its territory, a significant portion of its economy and its influential geo-political role in South Asia. At foreign fronts, Pakistan failed to gather any moral and foreign support even from her long-standing allies, particularly the United States, Turkey and the People's Republic of China. Since the independence, the physical existence Pakistan seemed to be in great mortal danger and quite obviously could rely on no one but itself.
All five atomic devices were the spherical-implosion-type
similar to one in the illustration. The government never released
the details of the technical aspects of the tested
weapons as a public domain due to its sensitivity.
The war played a crucial and groundbreaking role in the hearts of top scientists of the country who witnessed the war and control of remaining parts of the country was given to Zulfikar Ali Bhutto as country's elected Prime minister. Roughly two weeks after the disaster, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto called for a secret meeting of top and senior scientists in Multan on 20 January 1972 which later elevated as "Multan meeting". There, Zulfikar Bhutto authorized, initiated, and orchestrated the scientific research on atomic weapons bringing all the nuclear infrastructure under one chain of command. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, who was "obsessed" with Indian nuclear efforts, made extremely critical decisions and aggressively supervised the policy implementation of the atomic bomb project. In 1972, Bhutto appointed Abdus Salam as his science adviser and at same time, called nuclear engineer Munir Ahmad Khan from International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to lead the program administratively while Bhutto controlled the program as the political administrative figure. On November 1972, Bhutto assisted by Salam and Munir Khan, inaugurated the first commercial nuclear power, Kanupp-I in Karachi, Sindh Province. Along with Prof. Salam and Munir Ahmad Khan, the diameter of scientific research was expanded throughout the country. In PAEC, Salam established research divisions and groups that took charge to carry out the physics and mathematical calculations regarding to the development of the weapon. The atomic bomb project at an early stage was directed by Abdus Salam as he was the founding director of Theoretical Physics Group (denoted as TPG) and the and Mathematical Physics Group (denoted as MPG) at the PAEC to conduct mathematical and physics calculations regarding the fission devices.
On March 1974, the research on physical developments were initiated by Munir Khan and Abdus Salam after chairing a meeting in Pinstech Institute. At this meeting the word "bomb" was never used but the participants fully understood the nature of the work. This laid the foundation of "Wah Group Scientist" (denoted as WGS) with U.S. educated mechanical engineer Hafeez Qureshi as its director-general. During the same time, a new Directorate of Technical Development (DTD) was set up to coordinate work on the various specialized groups working in PAEC on the design, development, and testing of nuclear weapons under chemical engineer Dr. Shaikh Zaman. The far more complex assembly methods of implosion-bomb design was favored over the relatively simple gun-type method, and the productions of reactor and weapon-grade and separation of weapon-grade plutonium isotopes were massive undertakings by the PAEC.
The atomic bomb project was accelerated on May 1974 after India surprising Pakistan and the rest of the world after announcing the first explosion of nuclear device, Smiling Buddha in Pokhran Test Range of Indian Army. The goal to develop the atomic bombs became impetus after launching the uranium enrichment project, the Kahuta Project. In 1974, Abdul Qadeer Khan who was then working as a senior scientist at the URENCO Group and thus has access to highly classified information, directed a letter through the Pakistani Embassy in The Hague to offer his expertise, and officially joined the atomic bomb project in 1976. The Corps of Engineers under directorship of the General Zahid Ali Akbar, built the Engineering Research Laboratories (ERL) for that purpose and situated Abdul Qadeer Khan and his team at ERL for commercial and weapon-grade uranium enrichment. Finally in 1978, weapon designing and calculations were completed and a milestone in isotope separation was reached by the PAEC. In 1981, the physical development of the atomic bomb project was completed and the ERL successfully enriched the uranium above 5% and produces first batch of HEU fuel rods. On 11 March 1983, a milestone was achieved when PAEC led by Munir Ahmad Khan carried out the first cold test of a working nuclear device, codename Kirana 1. This was followed by 24 more cold tests by PAEC in which different weapon designs were tested and improved. After decades of covertly building and developing the atomic weapons program and the related atomic, Pakistan under the leadership of Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif, tested its five underground nuclear devices in Chagai Hills.
Test Planning And Preparations :-
Plans to conduct an atomic test started in 1976 when Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) research scientists frequently visiting the area to find a suitable location for an underground nuclear test, preferably a granite mountain. After a long survey, the PAEC scientists chose the granite mountain Koh Kambaran in the Ras Koh Hills range in the Chagai Division of Balochistan in 1978. Its highest point rises to a height of 3,009 metres (sources vary). The then-martial law administrator of the province, General Rahimuddin Khan, spearheaded the construction of the potential test sites throughout the 1980s.
In March 2005, the former Pakistan Prime minister Benazir Bhutto said Pakistan may have had an atomic weapon long before, and her father had told her from his prison cell that preparations for a nuclear test had been made in 1977, and he expected to have an atomic test of a nuclear device in August 1977. However, the plan was moved on to December 1977 and later it was delayed indefinitely. In an interview on TV, Samar Mubarakmand of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, has said that the team of Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission developed the design of atomic bomb in 1978 and had successfully conducted a cold test after developing the first atomic bomb in 1983.
The exact origin of the name is unknown, but it is often attributed to the weapon-testing laboratory leader Dr. Ishfaq Ahmad as a reference to the Chagai Hills, in spite of no nuclear experiments were performed at the vicinity of this site. It is generally believed that the codename was given in the Honour of the Chagai Hills in an attempt that it would not attract international and national attention of the world at where the exact tests were actually performed. On April 2010, Nawaz Sharif, at a public function to celebrate nuclear blasts, said the then U.S President Bill Clinton offered a package of US$5 billion for not carrying out nuclear blasts and warned about imposition of ban otherwise. Nawaz said that he was in Kazakhstan in a visit to meet the President, Nursultan Nazarbayev, when India tested its nuclear device. The entire nation was united in favor of nuclear blasts and Mushahid Hussain was the first person who advice that nuclear blasts should be carried out in reply of Indian nuclear explosions. In 1999, in an interview given to Pakistani and Indian journalists in Islamabad, Sharif had said: If India had not exploded the bomb, Pakistan would not have done so. Once New Delhi did so, we had no choice because of public pressure.
Test Predictions And Yields :-
The PAEC carried out five underground nuclear tests at the Chagai test site at 3:16 p.m. (PST) on the afternoon of 28 May 1998. The observation post was established about 10 km (about ~6.21 miles) from the test vicinity, with members of Mathematics groups and Theoretical Physics Group remained charged with calculating the yields. Calculating an accurate and precise yields are very hard to calculate even in a control environmental system, with many different possible ways the yields can be determined. The questions of politics also further disputed the exact figures. The total maximum yield of the tests was reported to be ~40 kilotons of TNT equivalent, with the largest (boosted) device yielding 30–36 kilotons. However, Western seismologists remains unconvinced and estimated the yield of the largest device to be no greater than 12 kilotons, leading U.S. nuclear weapons expert David Albright also remains skeptical about Pakistan's claims. U.S. scholars, based on the data they received from their computers, claimed that the possible yield ranged from 12-20kt as opposed to ~40kt by the Pakistan Government.

Live Video Footage Of Atomic Bomb Test Of Pakistan

The PAEC's mathematics division made the scientific data to public domain and published seismic activities, mathematical graphs, and mathematical formulas used to calculate the yield. After the tests, Prime minister Nawaz Sharif addressed the nation via Pakistan's government channel PTV and congratulated the entire nation and days of celebration followed throughout Pakistan.
From scientific data received by PAEC, it appears that Pakistan did not test a thermonuclear device, as opposed to India. According to Ishfaq Ahmad, PAEC had no plans to develop a three-stage thermonuclear device because of economic reasons, even though back in 1974, Riazuddin did propose such a plan to Abdus Salam, Director of Theoretical Physics Group that time. From the outset, PAEC concentrated on developing smaller tactical nuclear weapons easily installed in PAF aircraft, naval combatant vessels, and missiles.
Shortly after the tests, former chairman and technical director Munir Ahmad Khan famously quoted:
" These boosted devices are like a half way stage towards a thermonuclear bomb. They use elements of the thermonuclear process, and are effectively stronger atom bombs..... Pakistan has had a nuclear capability since 1984 and all the first five devices were made with the HEU. On other hand, Abdul Qadeer Khan further provided technical details on fission devices while addressing the local media as he puts it: "All boosted fission devices using U235 on 28 May. None of these explosions were thermonuclear. Pakistan is currently doing research and can do a fusion test if only asked. But it depends on the economical circumstances, political situation and the decision of the government." As opposed to India's thermonuclear approach, Dr. N.M. Butt, senior scientist, stated that "PAEC built a sufficient number of neutron bombs, a battlefield weapon that is essentially a low yield device."
Response By Pakistani Nation :-
The Directorate of Technical Development of PAEC which carried out the Chagai tests issued the following statement soon after the tests:

“The mission has, on the one hand, boosted the morale of the Pakistani nation by giving it an honorable position in the nuclear world, while on the other hand it validated scientific theory, design and previous results from cold tests. This has more than justified the creation and establishment of DTD more than 20 years back. Through these critical years of nuclear device development, the leadership contribution changed hands from Munir Ahmad Khan to Ishfaq Ahmad and finally to Mubarakmand. These gifted scientists and engineers along with a highly dedicated team worked logically and economically to design, produce and test an extremely rugged device for the nation which enable the Islamic Republic of Pakistan from strength to strength.”

Effects On Science In Pakistan :-
On this day, Pakistani scientists earned national renown in Pakistan, with Media of Pakistan projecting their biographies all over the country. Senior scientists and engineers were invited by a number of academic institutes and universities to deliver lectures on mathematical, theoretical, nuclear and particle physics. The institutes bestowed hundreds of silver and gold medallions and honorary doctorates to the scientists and engineers in 1998. Professor Abdus Salam (1926–1996) was also celebrated in Pakistan and Government of Pakistan released a commemorative stamp in the honor of Salam. In 1998, the theory of electroweak and its discovery two decade ago by Salam, was also celebrated nationwide for which Abdus Salam was awarded the Physics's Nobel Prize in 1979. In 1999, Government established Abdus Salam's museum in National Center for Physics, where his contribution to scientific programs and efforts were publicly recorded and televised. The 28 May has been officially declared as Yaum-e-Takbeer (Day of Greatness) to commemorate and remembrance of the first five tests that were carried out in 28 May, and as well as National Science Day in Pakistan to honor and remembrance the scientific efforts led by scientists to developed the devices. The day is celebrated by giving awards (such as Chagai-Medal) to various individuals and industries in the field of science and industries. The Nawaz Sharif Government also established the Chagai-I Medal and it was first awarded to the scientists of Pakistan in 1998 who were witnessed the tests. The graphite mountains are visibly shown in the gold medallion and equal ribbon stripes of yellow, red and white.

Friday, May 23, 2014

Abdali Missile Of Pakistan Army

Abdali-I named after the Pashtun king Ahmad Shah Abdali, the founder of the Durrani Empire) is a supersonic short-range ballistic missile (SRBM) developed by the Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (SUPARCO), and currently in operational service with the Pakistan Armed Forces.
The Abdali program was conceived and originally designed by the Space Research Commission in 1990s. The program's first derivative was originally designed as the two-stage version of the Hatf-I, essentially a solid-propellant stage was attached to the bottom of a Hatf-I. However, the program was canceled in 1994, likely due to the purchase of the M-11 missiles from the People’s Republic of China. In 1995, SUPARCO successfully persuaded and designed a new module for the Abdali program which was started the same year.
Design and Specification Of Abdali Missile System Of Pakistan Army :-
Its accuracy is sufficient for use against military targets such as bases or airfields. It is carried on a road mobile Transporter-Erector-Launcher (TEL) vehicle. The use of solid propellant and the TEL vehicle make the missile easy to store, transport and fire.
The Abdali-I has a range of 180 km and an accuracy of 15 m CEP. It is equipped with an inertial guidance system with terminal guidance. It can be equipped with a variable payload up to 500 kg, and can carry single HE explosive or cluster sub-munitions warheads. It has a launch weight of 1,750 kg. It uses a single-stage solid propellant engine and has a length of 9.75 m and a width of 0.56 m. Abdali Missile Is capable of delivering tactical nuclear weapons.
Development History and Deployment Status Of Abdali Missile :-
The original Abdali-I missile started development in 1987 and was first displayed in 1989. Another consideration may have been the purchase from China of the M-11 missiles with similar capabilities. Since the program was restarted with a new design in 1997, it has been flight tested in 2002, 2005 and 2006. Abdali is currently deployed and under production.

Abdali Missile Of Pakistan Army During A Demonstration
Abdali Missile Of Pakistan Army During A Demonstration
( Portrait Of Muhammad Ali Jinnah In The Background)
Naming Controversy Of Abdali Missile :-
In February 2006, the Government of Afghanistan delivered a complained to Pakistan over naming its lethal ballistic missiles after Afghan kings and rulers (i.e. Abdali, Ghaznavid and Ghauri), arguing that their names should be bracketed with academic, cultural and peace-promoting institutions, not with tools of destruction and killing. However, Pakistan declined to change the missiles' names stating that these Muslim rulers are considered heroes in Pakistan as well, and naming missiles after them is not controversial.